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Flashcards in Dixon Anaemia Deck (15):
1

definition of anaemia

reduced levels of either erythrocytes or haemoglobin

2

symptoms of anaemia

weakness
fatigue
faintness
drowsiness
headache
pallor
giddiness

3

what can anaemia cause

angina
congestive heart failure

4

in iron-deficiency anaemia what is the total body iron content and blood iron content

40-50mg/kg
500mg/L

5

discuss the iron balance in the body

iron loss = iron gain
continual renewal of cells
0.5mg daily
dietary
20mg daily
0.5-2mg absorbed

6

absorption of dietary iron

meat, liver, kidney = haemoglobin iron
6% dietary iron
easily absorbed

cereals, pulses (lentils), fruit = non haem iron
main component of dietary iron
poorly absorbed and only when Fe2+

7

causes of iron imbalances

pregnancy: increased requirement during last 6 months ~ 5mg/day

chronic bleeding: gastric ulcers, menstruating women. 10% lost > 2mg/day

diet: insufficient dietary iron, malabsorption

8

symptoms of iron imblanace

general: thin concave naisl (koilonychia)
inflammation of the tongue (glossitis), mouth inflammation (stomatitis)

erythrocytes: lighter shade of red (hypochromic)
small RBS (microcytic)

9

treatment for iron deficiency

oral iron supplements
absorbtion of supplements in:
normal = 10%
anaemia = 25-40%

increased absorption with ascorbic acid

10

side effects of iron supplements

irritant to GI tract
toxicity treated with desferrioxamine

11

what is vitamin deficiency anaemia

folic acid: required to synthesise DNA

vit b12: required to generate active form of folic acid:
both needed for DNA synthesis
both important for regeneration of fast growing cells e.g. RBC

12

vit b12 deficiency can cause?

megaloblastic macrocytic anaemia:
increase in large erythrocyte precursors and erythrocytes

this can lead to peripheral neuropathy and dementia

13

what are the causes of vitamin deficiency anaemias (b12)

low dietary intake (vegans)

impaired absorption:
decrease in intrinsic factor = gastrectomy, pernicious anaemia
Damage to ileum = surgery, inflammatory disease

14

what are the causes of vitamin deficiency anaemias (folic acid)

low dietary intake in elderly and alcoholics
increased demand in pregnancy
malabsorption
drugs: phenytoin, methotrexate

15

how do you treat vitamin deficiency anaemias

it is important to determine which vitamin is deficient

vit b12: long life treatment of hydroxycobalamin

flic acid: folic acid supplements