DNA & RNA Test Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DNA & RNA Test Deck (77):
1

Who came up with the DNA structure of the double helix

Watson &a Crick, and Rosalind Franklin

2

DNA stands for

Deoxyribonucleic acid

3

DNA and RNA are both made up of a strand of __

Nucleotides

4

Nucleotides are the monomer of __

Nucleic acids (polymer)

5

Nucleotides are made up of __

Sugar, base, and phosphate

6

The sugar and phosphate are the __

Backbone (double strand)

7

Attached to sugar, project inward and bind to each other

Base

8

The sugar in DNA is called __

Deoxyribose

9

Who determined that DNA contains genetic material

Hershey and Chase

10

Bases use __

Complementary based pairing

11

Only certain bases bind with other bases

Complementary based pairing

12

4 bases of DNA

Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine

13

Complementary based pairing. Who pairs with who?

Adenine will only bind with thymine and cytosine will only bind to guanine

14

Function of DNA

To store genetic material for the cell

15

Where is DNA ?

Nucleus (one exception is mitochondria)

16

RNA structure

Single stranded, not twisted

17

RNA structure consists of __

Sugar, phosphate, base

18

RNA sugar is __

Ribose

19

RNA bases are __

Adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil

20

Types of RNA

rRNA, mRNA, tRNA

21

Where is rRNA made?

Nucleolus

22

rRNA stands for

Ribosomal RNA

23

Structural component of ribosome- where protein is made

rRNA

24

Carries the message for DNA in nucleus to the ribosome

mRNA

25

mRNA stands for

Messenger RNA

26

Brings amino acids to the ribosome

tRNA

27

tRNA stands for

Transfer RNA

28

Cellular processes

DNA replication
Transcription
Translation

29

Copying of genes of DNA

DNA replication

30

Copying of DNA message by mRNA in the nucleus

Transcription

31

Construction of a protein at the ribosome by the tRNA reading the mRNA and putting together amino acids

Translation

32

For DNA replication, __ must be made

2 exact copies of genetic material

33

In DNA replication, each cell must have a __

Complete copy of DNA

34

In order for a complete copy of DNA, __ is used

Replication bubbles

35

DNA replication occurs in __

The nucleus

36

in each copy of DNA, there's one strand of new molecule and one strand of old molecules

Semi conservative replication

37

Enzymes in DNA replication

Helicase, DNA polymerase, DNA ligase

38

Unwinds the alphabetical structure

Helicase

39

In replication bubbles, it adds nucleotides to the new strand

DNA polymerase

40

Binds new nucleotides together

DNA ligase

41

Transcription occurs in the __

Nucleus

42

In translation, __ is the monomer and __ is the polymer

Amino acids
Protein

43

Protein is made in the __

Ribosome

44

DNA in nucleus holds the __

Blueprint for protein

45

__ gene codes for __

1
Polypeptide (protein)

46

Who devised the hypothesis for 1 gene coding for 1 protein

Beadle and Tatum

47

In transcription, mRNA __

Copies DNA then takes it to the ribosome

48

Enzyme used in transcription

RNA polymerase

49

__ Catalyzes transcription in the __

RNA polymerase
Nucleus

50

In transcription, the mRNA is modified in the __

Nucleus

51

DNA sequences that don't code for a protein (the in-betweens)

Introns

52

DNA sequence that do code for a protein

Exons

53

pre-mRNA is what

The original strand

54

pre-mRNA is modified by __

Small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRnP's)

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snRnP's modify mRNA by __; this occurs in the __

Cutting out stuff you don't need
Nucleus

56

Set of 3 base codon in RNA

Codon

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Each codon codes for a __

Specific amino acid

58

Translation is the __

Building of a polypeptide (protein) at the ribosome using message carried by mRNA (tRNA is also involved)

59

tRNA does what in translation

Brings amino acids to ribosome

60

Ribosome structure

2 subunits- large and small (snowman)

61

2 tRNA binding sites

A site and P site

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3 base sequence of tRNA, compliment of codon

Anticodon

63

Tells what brings for what

Genetic dictionary

64

__ is the start codon and binds for methionine

AUG

65

Every protein has __ at the end but eventually gets knocked off

Methionine

66

Don't code for anything, just stops it

Terminator codons

67

Mutations are any change in the __

Nucleotides sequence

68

Mutations can involve __

A large region or a single nucleotide

69

Example of single nucleotide mutations

Base substitution

70

Base substitution is when __

One base is wrongly replaced with another base

71

Effects of base substitution

1. Nothing (if it still codes)
2. Can cause protein to be disfunctional
3. Nonfunctional protein
4. Enhance function of protein (evolution)

72

Base substitution is __

Usually harmful

73

Types of base substitution

1. Base insertion or deletion

74

Results of base insertion or deletion

1. Adding base in or taking base out which shifts the reading frame
2. Won't function

75

Causes of base insertion or deletion

Spontaneous, physical (x-rays, uv light), chemical agents

76

Something that causes mutations

Mutagen

77

The process of mutagen causing mutations

Mutagenesis