Doc Young (11) Flashcards Preview

SP18: Pharm Final > Doc Young (11) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Doc Young (11) Deck (37):
1

What is the major cause of GERD?

Hiatal hernia

2

What mechanism causes the low pH environment in the stomach?

Parietal cells secrete H+ via H+/K+ ATPase

3

What is the most important way that gastrin causes acid release from parietal cells?

Attaches to GPCR which activates a PLC pathway to stimulate pump

4

What are three targets of drugs to inhibit acid release into the stomach?

1. Gastrine
2. Acetylcholine
3. Histamine

5

What is the most effective way to treat GERD?

Proton pump inhibitors

6

Which histamine receptor is a target for treating GERD?

H2 blockers

7

T/F: A gastrin receptor antagonist will treat GERD.

True

8

What is the main cause of peptic ulcers?

H. pylori

9

How do drugs treat nausea and vomiting?

Don't treat the act of vomiting, rather treat the feeling of needing to vomit

10

What is the use of natural anthraquinone derivatives (aloe, senna, cascara)?

Stimulant laxatives

11

How do stimulant laxatives work?

Increase nerve stimulation and cause accumulation of water and electrolytes in the lumen

12

How do fecal softeners and lubricants work?

Reduce surface tension allowing fluids and fatty substances to enter fecal mass

13

How do osmotic laxatives work?

Salts in the lumen increase water retention -> stimulates peristalsis

Saline/Nonsalin cathartics

14

What drug will treat opioid induced constipation?

Naloxegol (movantik)

15

T/F: Kaolin is a common drug to treat diarrhea.

False

Only in animals

16

What is the active ingredient of pepto-bismol?

Bismuth subsalicylate

17

How does bismuth subsalicylate work to prevent diarrhea?

Inhibits PG and chloride secretion

18

How do opioids prevent diarrhea?

Inhibits peristalsis and reduces fecal volume

19

Why is Imodium (opioid) an over the counter drug?

It stays in the GI tract

20

T/F: Acid stimulates demineralization of enamel, but does not inhibit remineralization.

False

Stim Demin: weakens interactions

Inhib Remin: at low pH the wrong form of phosphorous is formed

21

T/F: Critical pH of enamel is 5.5.

True

22

What is the most important drug in caries prevention?

Fluoride (-F)

23

What is the most likely action of fluoride?

Enhances natural remineralizing properties of saliva

24

What is the difference between hydroxyapatite and fluoroapatite?

-F replaces -OH

Smaller crystals, better H binding, decreased solubility

25

Why is it unlikely that the addition of fluoroapatite is the reason fluoride fights cavities?

There is not enough of it in comparison to hydroxyapatite

26

T/F: Fluoride enhances the rate of remineralization.

True

27

Other than fluoride, what are some anticaries agents?

1. CPP-ACP
2. Arginine-containing toothpaste
3. Mouthwashes
4. Xylitol

28

T/F: Chlorhexidine is the most effective mouthwash.

True

Bad side effects

29

T/F: In unhealthy gums there is more gram- bacteria and obligate anaerobes.

True

30

T/F: The high vasculature and thin mucosa of the mouth make it much easier for medications to work on plaque.

False

They are absorbed systemically more quickly

31

What two factors lead to the substantivity of mouth washes?

1. Reversible binding to oral reservoirs
2. Rate of clearance by salivary flow

32

Chlorhexidine and alexidine are ________.

bis-biguanides

33

What is the mechanism of triclosan?

Cidal at high concentrations

At lower therapuetic concentrations it is bacteriostatic inhibiting fatty acid synthesis

34

T/F: Phenolic compounds (essential oils) are a good adjunct to brushing and flossing.

True

Possibly more for gingivitis

35

Which popular toothpaste has triclosan?

Colgate

36

Which bacteria is utilized in probiotic mouthwashes and tablets?

S. salivarious

37

What is the mechanism of sensitivity toothpaste like sensodyne?

Increase external K+ producing chronic depolarization of nerve