Flashcards in Doc Young (11) Deck (37):
What is the major cause of GERD?
What mechanism causes the low pH environment in the stomach?
Parietal cells secrete H+ via H+/K+ ATPase
What is the most important way that gastrin causes acid release from parietal cells?
Attaches to GPCR which activates a PLC pathway to stimulate pump
What are three targets of drugs to inhibit acid release into the stomach?
What is the most effective way to treat GERD?
Proton pump inhibitors
Which histamine receptor is a target for treating GERD?
T/F: A gastrin receptor antagonist will treat GERD.
What is the main cause of peptic ulcers?
How do drugs treat nausea and vomiting?
Don't treat the act of vomiting, rather treat the feeling of needing to vomit
What is the use of natural anthraquinone derivatives (aloe, senna, cascara)?
How do stimulant laxatives work?
Increase nerve stimulation and cause accumulation of water and electrolytes in the lumen
How do fecal softeners and lubricants work?
Reduce surface tension allowing fluids and fatty substances to enter fecal mass
How do osmotic laxatives work?
Salts in the lumen increase water retention -> stimulates peristalsis
What drug will treat opioid induced constipation?
T/F: Kaolin is a common drug to treat diarrhea.
Only in animals
What is the active ingredient of pepto-bismol?
How does bismuth subsalicylate work to prevent diarrhea?
Inhibits PG and chloride secretion
How do opioids prevent diarrhea?
Inhibits peristalsis and reduces fecal volume
Why is Imodium (opioid) an over the counter drug?
It stays in the GI tract
T/F: Acid stimulates demineralization of enamel, but does not inhibit remineralization.
Stim Demin: weakens interactions
Inhib Remin: at low pH the wrong form of phosphorous is formed
T/F: Critical pH of enamel is 5.5.
What is the most important drug in caries prevention?
What is the most likely action of fluoride?
Enhances natural remineralizing properties of saliva
What is the difference between hydroxyapatite and fluoroapatite?
-F replaces -OH
Smaller crystals, better H binding, decreased solubility
Why is it unlikely that the addition of fluoroapatite is the reason fluoride fights cavities?
There is not enough of it in comparison to hydroxyapatite
T/F: Fluoride enhances the rate of remineralization.
Other than fluoride, what are some anticaries agents?
2. Arginine-containing toothpaste
T/F: Chlorhexidine is the most effective mouthwash.
Bad side effects
T/F: In unhealthy gums there is more gram- bacteria and obligate anaerobes.
T/F: The high vasculature and thin mucosa of the mouth make it much easier for medications to work on plaque.
They are absorbed systemically more quickly
What two factors lead to the substantivity of mouth washes?
1. Reversible binding to oral reservoirs
2. Rate of clearance by salivary flow
Chlorhexidine and alexidine are ________.
What is the mechanism of triclosan?
Cidal at high concentrations
At lower therapuetic concentrations it is bacteriostatic inhibiting fatty acid synthesis
T/F: Phenolic compounds (essential oils) are a good adjunct to brushing and flossing.
Possibly more for gingivitis
Which popular toothpaste has triclosan?
Which bacteria is utilized in probiotic mouthwashes and tablets?