Dosage Forms and Routes of Administration Flashcards Preview

Phamacy Technician Exam > Dosage Forms and Routes of Administration > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dosage Forms and Routes of Administration Deck (75):
1

dosage form

system or device for delivering the drug to the body

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inert

inactive

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additives

additional formulation aids that may be necessary for a successful preparation of the dosage form

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diluents

(additives) used to increase the bulk weight or volume of a dosage form so that the dose of the active drug is more easily handled by the patient

5

excipients

inactive substances used as a carrier for the active ingredients of a medication

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preservatives

substances that retard, minimize, or prevent the growth of bacteria or other microorganisms in the dosage form

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CD

controlled diffusion

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CR

controlled (or continuous) release

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CRT

controlled-release tablet

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LA

long-acting

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SA

sustained-action

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SR

sustained (or slow) release

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TD

time delay

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TR

time release

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XL

extra-long

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XR

extended-release

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IV

intravenous (in vein)

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MDI

meter-dose inhalers

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IV push (IVP)

Bolus. drug is given intravenously over a short period (syringe/needle)

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IV piggyback (IVPB)

drug is infused into vein over hours or days

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IM

intramuscular (injection into large muscle)

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SC, subQ, or SQ

subcutaneous (injected under skin in fatty tissue)

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ID

intradermal (into the top layer of skin)

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IA

intra-arterial (into an artery)

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intra-articular

into joint

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IC

intracardiac (into the heart)

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intraperitoneal

into the abdominal cavity

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intrapleural

into the sac surrounding the lung

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intraentricular

into the cavities of the brain

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intrathecal

into the space around the spinal cord

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intravaginal

into the vagina

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intraocular

into the eye

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topical

the application of a drug to the surface of the skin or mucous membranes

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transdermal

through the skin and is used to deliver drug systemically

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Capsules

-solid dosage form -with or without inert -enclosed in a gelatin shell, dissolves in stomach approx. 10-30min [soft(sealed) or hard(unsealed)] -size: 000(largest)-5(smallest)

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Tablets

-solid dosage form -formed in molds or by die punch compression -may include inerts -accurate dosages -extended- or sustained-release

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Chewable Tablets

-designed to be chewed before swallowing

-usually plesant flavored

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Enteric-coated tablets

(EC)

-coated with a substance to prevent dissolution in the stomach acid

-meant to be dissolved in intestines

-never be chewed, broken, or crushed

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Sublingual tablets

-design to be dissolved quickly under the tongue

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Buccal tablets

designed to place between the cheek and gum

dissoled over time

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Film-coated tablets

-coated with a thin layer of water-solube material that dissoles quickly in stomach

-coated to cover up unpleasant tatse or odor/ deterioration

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Effervescant tablets

-contain sodium bicarbonate and citric and/or tartaric acid

-when placed in liquid, acid-base reaction (bubbles) release active ingredient

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Pellets (tablets)

-small, cylinder-shaped tablets

-meant for implantation

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Vaginal tablets

designed to be inserted into the vagina

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Lozenges

-solid dosage form

-hard, oval, or discoid(flat & round)

-flavor sugar base

-mouth or throat

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Suppositories

-designed for insertion into the rectum, viginal cavity, or urethral tract

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Powders

-solid dosage form

-finely ground mixtures of dry drugs and inactive ingredients

-externially: sprinkled or dusted on the area to be treated or make a paste

-internally: dissolved in water then swallowed

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Granules

-solid doasge form

-powders that are wetted, allowed to dry, and grounded into course, irregular pieces

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Solutions

-liquid dosage form containing soluble matter

-homogenous (evenly distributed) mixtures of one or more dissolved med. (solute) in a liquid vechicle (solvent)

-solid, liquid, or gas

external and internal use

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Aqueous Solutions

-contain water as the solvent

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Vehicle

-fluid medium / solvent

-water, alcohol, or mineral oil

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Douches

-liquid dosage form containing soluble matter

-aqueous solution

-directed into the body cavity to remove debris or disinfect

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Irrigations

-liquid dosage form containing soluble matter

-aqueous solution

-used to wash eyes, the urinary bladder, or open wounds

-larger then douches

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Enemas

-liquid dosage form containing soluble matter

-aqueous solution

-introduced into the rectum to empty bowel or treat disease

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Gargles

-liquid doasge form containing soluble matter

-aqueous solution

-treat diseases of the throat

-not to be swallowed

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Washes

-liquid dosage form containing soluble matter

-aqueous solution

-used to cleanse or bathe a body part

-not to be swallowed

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Sprays

-liquid dosage form containing soluble matter

-aqueous solution

-deliver as a mist against mucous membrane of the nose or throat

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Injection

-liquid dosage form containing soluble matter

-aqueous solution

-sterile drug introduced beneath the skin, into the muscle, or into the bloodsteam

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Syrups

-liduid dosage form containing soluble matter

-viscous aqueous solution

-concentrated mixture of sugar and drug

-often used in pediatrics

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Mucilages

-liquid dosage form containing soluble matter

-viscous aqueous solution

-adhesive liquids containing pulpy components of vegetable matter

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Nonaqueous Solution

-without water*

-hydro-alcoholic (with water*)

-alcoholic solutions

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Hydro-alcoholic Solution

-liquid dosage form containing soluble matter

-nonaqueous solution

-includes elixirs and tinctures

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Elixirs

-hydro-alcoholic solution

-sweetened with pleasant tatse

-good relative stability

-easy to prepare

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Tinctures

-hydro-alcoholic solution

-prepare from vegetable, animal, or chemical materials

-have higher alcohol content than elixir

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Alcoholic Solutions

-Nonaqueous Solution

-contains no water

-dissolved directly into ethyl alcohol

66

Emulsions

-liquid dosage form containing insoluble matter

-mixtures of two liquids that normall do not mix

-one liquid is broken into small particles and evenly scattered throughout the other.

-liquid in small particles = internal phase

-the other liquid = external phase

-the two phases will seperate unless an emulsifying agent is used

67

Suspensions

-liquid dosage form containing inslouble matter

-mixtures of very fine particles of an insoluble solid (internal phase) distributed through a gas, liquid, or solid (external phase)

-external phase in most suspensions is water & called aqueous suspension

-need to shaken before used

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Injectable Suspensions

-allow for insoluble drugs to be administered in a suitable form for intramusclar (subcutaneous) purpose.

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Well- formulated suspensions have the following chararistics:

-suspended material should not settle rapidly

-when shaken, should disperse evenly

-should pour freely

-(external) spread evenly

-(external) dry quickly

-(external) should not rub off

-example: lotions

70

Extended-Release Dosage Form

-formulated so that active ingredients are released over time at a constant rate (8-24hr)

-typically capules or tablets

-sometimes: injections, implants, troches, or patches

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Delayed-Release Dosage Form

-release their drug ar a later time

-example: enteric-coated tablets

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Semisolid Dosage Form

-too thick too to be a liqiud

-not solid enough to be a solid

-intended for topical application

examples:  

  • ointments
  • creams
  • pastes
  • gels
  • inhalers

73

Aerosols

-miscellaneous dosage forms

-suspensions of fine liquid or solid drug particles in a gas propellant and packaging

-example: inhaler

74

Injectable Dosage Form

-vials

-ampoules (ampules)

-pre-filled syringes

-pre-filled infusion bags

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Parenteral Route

-bypass the gastrointestinal tract

-given over short or extended period

-are usually emulsions oe suspensions