DPT 5000 Quiz 2- Cell Physiology/Homeostasis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in DPT 5000 Quiz 2- Cell Physiology/Homeostasis Deck (28):
1

Physiology

Study of how living organisms function.

2

Effects of PT treatment @ cellular level

1. Muscle Cells
2. Nerve Cells
3. Epithelial Cells
4. Connective Tissue Cells

3

Levels of Cellular Organization

1. Single cell division & growth
2. Differentiation
3. Tissues
4. Organs
5. Organ Systems (10 in body)
6. Total organism

4

Types of Cells

1. Prokaryotic (bacterial)
2. Eukaryotic cells (animals and plants)

5

Overall structures inside the cell

1. Nucleus
2. Cytoplasm- everything else
A) cell organelles
B) cytosol- fluid surrounding organelles
3. Plasma Membrane

6

Functions of Cell Membranes

1) Selective Barrier
2) Detect chemical messengers
3) Link adjacent cells/ anchor cells to extracellular matrix

7

Plasma Membrane

1. Phospholipid bilayer w/ proteins
2. Proteins (ion channels, signals, cell shape)
3. Carbohydrates (short sugar chain/cell identification)
4. Cholesterol (vesicle formation)

8

Nucleus

Storage & transmission of DNA
-nuclear envelope (allows RNA & proteins to move between nucleus and cytoplasm)
-chromatin (DNA-protein threads)
-Nucleolus (contains DNA for ribosomal RNA)

9

Endoplasmic Reticulum & Ribosomes

Ribosomes- cell protein factories
RER- Rough ER (has ribosomes; package proteins)
SER- Smooth ER (no ribosomes; lipid synthesis; CA++ ion storage)

10

Golgi Apparatus

Flattened membranous sacks
-modifies proteins from rER
- sorts into transport vesicles

i.e. sort neurotransmitters to be sent out of cell

11

Mitochondria

Make ATP by cellular respiration

muscle cells --> lots of mitochondria!

12

Lysosomes

Contain highly acidic fluid+digestive enzymes
breaks down bacteria, dead cell debris, etc.

13

Peroxisomes

similar to lysosomes

14

Cytoskeleton

maintains cell shape and produce cell movement
1. microfilaments
2. intermediate filaments
3. microtubules

15

Cell Function

1) Chemical Rxns
2) Movement across Membrane
a) diffusion/osmosis
b) facilitated diffusion/ active transport
c) endocytosis & exocytosis

16

Chemical Rxns

Catabolism
- breaking chemical bonds

Anabolism
- forming new chemical bonds & molecules

Require the transfer & balance of matter and energy.

17

Chemical Rxns: Law of Chemistry and Physics: Reaction Rate Affected by...

1. Reactant conc. (higher=faster)
2. Activation energy (higher energy require= slower rate)
3. Temperature (higher= faster rate)
i.e. fever --> increases speed of immune syst.
4. Catalyst (present= faster rate)
Enzyme- protein catalyst

18

Enzymes and Cofactors

Enzymes- proteins that lower activation energy and increase rxn rate

Cofactors- binds to enzyme & allows it to function

19

Diffusion

net movement of molecules from region of high conc. to region of low conc.

20

Diffusion Flux & Rate

1. Temperature
2. Molecule size
3. Surface area of membrane
4. Medium moving through (air faster than water)
5. Distance (larger distance= slower diffusion)

21

Osmosis

net diffusion of water across membrane

1. isotonic
2. hypotonic
3. hypertonic

22

Other ways to cross membrane

1. Ion diffusion through protein channels
2. Facilitated diffusion
3. Active transport

23

Endocytosis & Exocytosis

Endocytosis-plasma membrane folds into cell & produces membrane-bound vesicle (pinocytosis, phagocytosis)

Exocytosis- vesicle fuses w/ plasma membrane & releases contents into extracellular fluid.

24

Homeostasis

Maintain stable internal environmental conditions.
(Feedback and Feedforward)

25

Feedback

negative- increase or decrease in variable causes response to move variable back toward original value (i.e. drop in body temp --> body shivers returns body temp to original value)
positive- less common; actually accelerates a process (i.e. child birth/ contractions & oxytocin release)

26

Feedforward

Anticipates changes in regulate variabls and acts to minimize them (i.e. smell food --> stomach increases acid content).

27

Feedback --> Reflexes

Stimulus causes autonomic response
Built-in: unlearned (pull away from hot stove)
Acquired- result of learning (driving)

pathways are not exclusive to nervous system

28

Cellular Communication

1. hormones (though blood)
2. neurotransmitters (through nerves)
3. paracrine agents (via diffusion on local cells)

Autocrine