Driver Training - General Knowledge Study Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Driver Training - General Knowledge Study Questions Deck (152):
1

1. What is the most important reason for doing a vehicle inspection?

Safety is the most important reason to inspect your vehicle.

(p 2-1)

2

2. What things should you check during a trip?

- Watch gauges for signs of trouble
- Use senses to check for problems
- Look, listen, smell, and feel
- Check critical items when you stop
- Tires, wheels, and rims
- Brakes
- Lights and reflectors
- Brake and electrical connections to trailer
- Trailer coupling devices
- Cargo securement devices

(p 2-1)

3

3. Name some key steering system parts

Steering Wheel
Steering Wheel Shaft
Steering Gear Box
Pitman Arm
Drag Link
Steering Ring Knuckle
Spindle
Tie Rod
Steering Arms

(p 2-3)

4

4. What three kinds of emergency equipment must you have?

1. Fire extinguisher(s)
2. Spare Electrical Fuses (unless equipped w/ CB's)
3. Warning devices for parked vehicles (ex: reflective warning triangles)

(p 2-5)

5

5. What is the minimum tread depth for front tires?

At least 4/32 inch thread depth in every major groove on front tires.

At least 2/32 inch thread depth on other tires.

No fabric should show through the tread or sidewall.

(p 2-2, 2-35)

6

6. Name some things you should check on the front of your vehicle during the walk-around inspection.

Lights
- Headlights
- Signal
- Clearance Lights
Windshield Wipers
Front Suspension
Front Wheels
Front Brakes

(p 2-6, 2-7)

7

7. What should wheel bearing seals be checked for?

Not leaking

(p 2-11)

8

8. How many red reflective triangles should you carry?

Three

(p 2-9)

9

9. How do you test hydraulic brakes for leaks?

Pump brake pedal 3 times
Apply firm pressure to the pedal and hold for 5 seconds
- Pedal should not move
- If pedal moves, there may be a leak or other problem

(p 2-13)

10

10. Why should you back toward the driver side?

So you can see better.

If you back and turn toward the driver's side, you can watch the rear of your vehicle by looking out the side window.

Backing toward right side is very dangerous because you cant see well.

(p 2-16)

11

11. What is a pull-up?

When backing a trailer, make pull-ups to re-position your vehicle as needed.

(p 2-17)

12

12. When backing, why is it important to use a helper?

There are blind spots you can't see

(p 2-16)

13

13. What's the most important hand signal that you and your helper should agree on?

A signal for "Stop"

(p 2-17)

14

14. What are two special conditions where you should downshift?

1. Before Starting Downhill
2. Before Entering a Curve

(p 2-18)

15

15. When should you downshift automatic transmission?

When going down grades

Can select a low range to get greater engine braking when going down grades. The lower ranges prevent the transmission from shifting up beyond the selected gear (unless the governor rpm is exceeded). Very important to use this braking effect when going down grades.

(p 2-19)

16

16. T or F? Retarders keep you from skidding when the road is slippery.

False

Retarders help slow a vehicle, reducing the need for using brakes. They reduce brake wear and give you another way to slow down.
When turned "ON", retarders apply their braking power (to the drive wheels only) whenever you let up on the accelerator pedal all the way.

(p 2-19)

17

17. What are the two ways to know when to shift?

1. Use Engine Speed (rpm)
2. Use Road Speed (mph)

(p 2-18)

18

18. How far ahead does the manual say you should look?

12 to 15 seconds ahead
- Lower speeds: About 1 block
- Highway speeds: About 1/4 mile

(p 2-19)

19

19. What's your most important way to see the sides and rear?

Check your mirrors

(p2-20)

20

20. What does "communicating" mean in safe driving?

Signaling what you intend to do

(p 2-21)

21

21. Where should your reflectors be placed when stopped on a divided highway?

10 ft,
100 ft,
and 200 ft toward approaching traffic

(p 2-22)

22

22. What three things add up to total stopping distance?

Perception Distance
+ Reaction Distance
+ Braking Distance
= Total Stopping Distance

(2-24)

23

23. If you go twice as fast, will your stopping distance increase by twice or four times?

Four times as much distance

Whenever you double your speed, it takes about four times as much distance to stop

(2-25)

24

24. T or F? Empty trucks have the best braking.

False

Brakes, tires, springs, and shock absorbers on heavy vehicles are designed to work best when the vehicle is fully loaded.

Empty trucks require greater stopping distances because an empty vehicle has less traction. It can bounce and lock up its wheels, giving much poorer braking.

(2-25)

25

25. What is hydroplaning?

Tires lose contact with the road and have little or no traction.

You may not be able to steer or brake.
You can regain control by releasing the accelerator and pushing the clutch. This will slow vehicle and let the wheels turn freely.

Do not use brakes to slow down.

(2-25)

26

26. What is "black ice"?

A thin layer of ice that is clear enough that you can see the road underneath it.

It makes the road look wet.

Be cautions for black ice when the temperature is below freezing and the road looks wet.

(2-25)

27

27. How do you find out how many seconds of following distance space you have?

Use a:
- Shadow on the road
- Pavement marking
- Some other clear landmark
Then count off the seconds it takes for you to get there

(2-28)

28

28. If you are driving a 30-foot vehicle at 55 mph, how many seconds of following distance should you have?

4 seconds

30ft x (1 sec / 10 ft) + 1 sec = 4 seconds

1 sec for each 10 ft of vehicle length (40 mph or less)
At speeds greater than 40 mph, add 1 sec for safety

(2-27)

29

29. T or F? You should decrease your following distance if somebody is following you too closely?

False

- Opening up room in front of you will help you to avoid having to make sudden speed or direction changes

- It also makes it easier for the tailgater to get around you

(2-28)

30

30. T or F? If you swing wide to the left before turning right, another driver may try to pass you on the right.

True

Turn wide as you complete the turn, keep the rear of your vehicle close to the curb. This will stop other drivers from passing on the right.

(2-30)

31

31. T or F? You should use low beams whenever you can.

False

Use high beams when you can

Use high beams when it is safe and legal to do so.
Use when you are not within 500 feet of an approaching vehicle.

(2-34)

32

32. What should you do before you drive if you are drowsy?

Stop driving at the nearest safe place

(2-34)

33

33. T or F? You should let air out of hot tires so the pressure goes back to normal.

False

Air pressure increases with temperature.
Do Not let air out or the pressure will be too low when the tires cool off.

(2-37)

34

34. T or F? You can safely remove the radiator cap as long as the engine isn't overheated.

False

Never remove the radiator cap or any part of the pressurized system until the system has cooled.

Steam and boiling water can spray under pressure and cause severe burns.

If you can touch the radiator cap with your bare hand, it is probably cool enough to open.

(2-37)

35

35. What factors determine your selection of a "safe" speed when going down a long, steep downgrade?

- Total weight of the vehicle and cargo
- Length of the grade
- Steepness of the grade
- Road conditions
- Weather

(2-39)

36

36. Why should you be in the proper gear before starting downhill?

Shift the transmission to a low gear before starting down the grade.

Do not try to downshift after your speed has already built up.
- You will not be able to shift into a lower gear.
- You may not be able to get back into any gear and all the engine braking effect will be lost.

(2-40)

37

37. Describe the proper braking technique when going down a long, steep downgrade.

The use of brakes on a long and/or steep downgrade is only a supplement to the braking effect of the engine.

1. Apply brakes just hard enough to feel a definite slowdown

2. When speed has been reduced approx 5 mph below your "safe" speed, release the brakes (brake application should last for about 3 seconds)

3. When your speed has increased to your "safe" speed, repeat steps 1 and 2

(2-40)

38

38. What is a hazard?

Any road condition or other road user that is a possible danger

(2-41)

39

39. Why make emergency plans when you see a hazard?

Look for hazards in order to have time to plan a way out of any emergency.

Think about the emergencies that could develop and figure out what you would do.

Always be prepared to take action based on your plans.

(2-45)

40

40. T or F? Stopping is not always the safest thing to do in an emergency.

True

Stopping is not always the safest thing to do in an emergency.

When you don't have enough room to stop, you may have to steer away from what's ahead.
- You can almost always turn to miss an obstacle more quickly than you can stop

(2-45)

41

41. What are some advantages of going right instead of left around an obstacle?

- Going into the shoulder lane
- Unlikely that anyone is driving in the shoulder

- Prevent forcing anyone into an opposing traffic lane and a possible head-on collision

(2-46)

42

42. What is an "escape ramp"?

- Usually located a few miles from the top of a downgrade

- Some use soft gravel that resists the motion of a vehicle and brings it to a stop

- Others turn uphill, using the hill to stop the vehicle and soft gravel to hold it in place

(2-48)

43

43. T or F? If a tire blows out, you should put the brakes on hard to stop quickly.

False

Stay off the brake

- Braking when a tire has failed could cause loss of control

- Unless about to run into something, stay off the brake until the vehicle has slowed down
- Then brake very gently, pull off the road, and stop

(2-49)

44

44. What are some things to do at an accident scene to prevent another accident?

1. Protect the area
- Keep another accident from happening in same spot
- Get vehicle to side of road
- If stopping to help, park away from the accident
- Put on flashers
- Set out reflective triangles

2. Notify authorities
- Call out on CB radio or use phone

3. Care for the injured
- Don't move a severely injured person unless the danger of fire or passing traffic makes it necessary
- Stop heavy bleeding by applying direct pressure
- Keep injured person warm

(2-51)

45

45. Name two causes of tire fires.

1. Under-inflated tires
2. Duals that touch

(2-52)

46

46. What kinds of fires is a B:C extinguisher not good for?

Not good for wood, paper, and cloth (trash fires)

B:C type is designed to work on electrical fires and burning liquids

A:B:C is designed to work on burning wood, paper, and cloth as well

(2-53)

47

47. T or F? Common medicines for colds can make you sleepy.

True

(2-56)

48

48. What should you do if you become sleepy while driving?

Stop to Sleep
Take a Nap
Avoid Drugs

(2-54)

49

49. T or F? Coffee and a little fresh air will help a drinker sober up.

False

Only time will help a drinker sober up

(2-55)

50

50. What is a hazardous materials placard?

51. Why are placards used?

Placard used to warn others of hazardous material
- Signs put on outside of a vehicle to identify the hazard class of the cargo
- Placarded vehicle must have at least four identical placards (front, rear, both sides)
- Readable from all four directions
- 10 3/4 inches square turned upright on a point in a diamond shape

51

52. For what three things related to cargo are drivers responsible?

1. Inspecting your cargo
2. Recognizing overloads and poorly balanced weight
3. Knowing your cargo is properly secured

(3-1)

52

53. How often must you stop while on the road to check your cargo?

- Inspect cargo and securing devices within 25 miles after beginning a trip
- Stop after you have driven 3 hours or 150 miles
- Check after every break you take during driving

(3-1)

53

54. How is Gross Combination Weight Rating different from Gross Combination Weight?

Gross Combination Weight (GCW)
- Total weight of a powered unit plus trailer(s) plus the cargo

Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR)
- The maximum GCW specified by the manufacturer for a specific combination of vehicle plus its load

(3-2)

54

55. Name two situations where legal maximum weights may not be safe.

1. During bad weather
2. In mountains

(3-2)

55

56. What can happen if you don't have enough weight on the front axle?

Underloaded front axles can make the steering axle weight too light to steer safely.
- Caused by shifting weight too far to the rear

(3-3)

56

57. What is the minimum number of tiedowns for any flat bed load?

At least two tiedowns, no matter how small the cargo.

- Combined strength of all cargo tiedowns must be strong enough to lift 1.5x the weight of the piece of cargo tied down
- At least one tiedown for each ten feet of cargo

(3-4)

57

58. What is the minimum number of tiedowns for a 20-foot load?

2 tiedowns

(1 tiedown/10 feet) x 20 feet = 2 feet

- At least two tiedowns, no matter how small the cargo
- At least one tiedown for each ten feet of cargo

(3-4)

58

59. Name the two basic reasons for covering cargo on an open load?

1. Protect people from spilled cargo
2. Protect the cargo from weather

(3-4)

59

60. What must you check before transporting a sealed load?

Check that you don't exceed gross weight or axle weight limits

- You cannot inspect sealed loads but you should check that you don't exceed gross weight and axle weight limits

(3-4)

60

61. What factors determine your selection of a "safe" speed when going down a long, steep downgrade?

- Total weight of the vehicle and cargo
- Length of the grade
- Steepness of the grade
- Road conditions
- Weather

(2-26, 2-39)

61

62. Who must have a CDL?

A driver operating:
- A single vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of more than 26,000 pounds
- A trailer with a GVWR of more than 10,000 pounds if the gross combination weight rating (GCWR) is more than 26,000 pounds
- A vehicle designed to transport more than 15 persons (including the driver)
- Any size vehicle which requires hazardous materials placards

(1-1)

62

63. Can you have more than one license?

No

You cannot have more than one license
- Fine up to $5000 or jail
- Keep home state license and return any others

(1-2)

63

64. How long do you have to notify employer of convictions of a traffic violation?

Within 30 days

(1-2)

64

65. How long do you have to notify your vehicle licensing agency of convictions in another jurisdiction?

Within 30 days

- Does not include parking violations

(1-2)

65

66. How much driving history must you give to your employer?

Information for all driving jobs held for the past 10 years

(1-2)

66

67. What is the fine for driving without a CDL?

Fine up to $5000 or jail

(1-2)

67

68. How first-time offenses will cause the loss of CDL?

Lose CDL for at least one year for a first offense if you:

- Drive a CMV under the influence of alcohol or controlled substance
- Leave the scene of an accident involving a CMV you were driving
- Use a CMV to commit a felony

(1-3)

68

69. When will you lose CDL for life?

Will lose CDL for life:
- For a second offense (qualifying for loss of CDL for one year) while driving hazardous material
- If you use a CMV to commit a felony involving controlled substances
- For a second offense of operating a CMV under the influence of alcohol

(1-3)

69

70. What offenses result in a 60-day loss of CDL?

Committed two (2) serious traffic violations within a three-year period involving a CMV

(1-3)

70

71. What offenses result in a 120-day loss of CDL?

Committed three (3) serious traffic violations within a three-year period

(1-3)

71

72. What results in a 1-year loss of CDL?

Lose CDL for at least one year for a first offense if you:

- Drive a CMV under the influence of alcohol or controlled substance
- Leave the scene of an accident involving a CMV you were driving
- Use a CMV to commit a felony

(1-3)

72

73. What are considered serious traffic violations?

- Excessive speeding (+15 mph above posted speed limit)
- Reckless driving
- Improper or erratic lane changes
- Following a vehicle too closely
- Traffic offenses committed in a CMV in connection with fatal traffic accidents

(1-3)

73

74. When is it illegal to drive a CMV?

- While under the influence of drugs or alcohol
- Driving without a CDL

(1-2, 1-3)

74

75. How much tread depth is needed?

- At least 4/32 inch tread depth in every major groove on front tires

- At least 2/32 inch tread depth on other tires

(2-2)

75

76. Can radial and bias-ply tires be used together?

No

Tire problems during inspection:
- Radial and bias-ply tires used together

(2-2)

76

77. Can regrooved, recapped, or retarded tires be used on the front wheels of a bus?

No

Tire problems during inspection:
- Regrooved, recapped, or retreaded tires on the front wheels of a bus. These are prohibited.

(2-2)

77

78. What are the signs of a damaged rim?

Wheel and Rim Problems

- Damaged rims
- Rust around wheel nuts
- Missing clamps, spacers, studs, or lugs
- Mismatched, bent, or cracked lock rigns
- Wheels or rims that have had welding repairs are not safe

(2-2)

78

79. What are the signs of bad brake drums or shoes?

Bad Brake Drums or Shoes

- Cracked drums
- Shoes or pads with oil, grease, or brake fluid on them
- Shoes worn dangerously thin, missing, or broken

(2-2)

79

80. What are the signs of a steering system defect?

Steering System Defects

- Missing nuts, bolts, cotter keys, or other parts
- Bent, loose, or broken parts
- Steering column
- Steering gear box
- Tie rods
- Hoses, pumps, fluid level, and leaks for power steering equipped vehicles
- Steering wheel out of play more than 10 degrees

(2-3)

80

81. What are signs of suspension system defects?

Suspension System Defects

- Spring hangers that allow movement of axle from proper position
- Cracked or broken spring hangers
- Missing or broken leaves in any spring leaf
- Broken leaves in a multi-leaf spring or leaves that have shifted so they might hit a tire or other part
- Leaking shock absorbers
- Torque rod or arm, u-bolts, spring hangers, or other axle positioning parts that are cracked, damaged, or missing
- Air suspension systems that are damaged and/or leaking
- Any loose, cracked, broken, or missing frame members

(2-3)

81

82. What are signs of exhaust system defects?

Exhaust System Defects

- Loose, broken, or missing exhaust pipes, mufflers, tailpipes, or vertical stacks
- Loose, broken, or missing mounting brackets, clamps, bolts, or nuts
- Exhaust system parts rubbing against fuel system parts, tires, or other moving parts of a vehicle
- Exhaust system parts that are leaking

(2-4)

82

83. What is your responsibility if cargo contains hazardous materials?

Must inspect for proper papers and placarding

(2-5)

83

84. What are the seven steps in a pre-trip inspection?

1. Vehicle Overview
2. Check Engine Compartment
3. Start Engine and Inspect Inside the Cab
4. Turn Off Engine and Check Lights
5. Do Walk-around Inspection
6. Check Signal Lights
7. Start the Engine and Check Brake System

(2-5 to 2-13)

84

85. How do you check hydraulic brakes?

1. Pump the brake pedal three times
2. Apply firm pressure to the pedal and hold for five seconds, pedal should not move
- If pedal moves, there may be a leak or other problem

85

86. When do you shift up?

Two ways of knowing when to shift:

1. Use Engine Speed (rpm)
- Learn vehicle operating rpm range
- Watch tachometer and shift up when your engine reaches the top of the range

2. Use Road Speed (mph)
- Learn what speed each gear is good for
- Watch speedometer and shift when required

May learn to use engine sounds to know when to shift

(2-18)

86

87. When should you downshift?

Special conditions where you should downshift:

1. Before starting down a hill
2. Before entering a curve

Two ways of knowing when to shift:

1. Use Engine Speed (rpm)
- Learn vehicle operating rpm range
- Watch tachometer and shift down when required

2. Use Road Speed (mph)
- Learn what speed each gear is good for
- Watch speedometer and shift when required

May learn to use engine sounds to know when to shift

(2-18)

87

88. What is a retarder?

Retarders help slow a vehicle
- Reduces the need for using brakes
- Reduces brake wear
- Provides another way to slow down
- All retarders can be turned on or off by the driver
- Some retarders the power can be adjusted
- When turned "ON", retarders apply braking power to the drive wheels only whenever you let up on the accelerator pedal all the way

(2-19)

88

89. When should you turn the retarder off?

Whenever the road is wet, icy, or snow covered

When drive wheels have poor traction, the retarder may cause them to skid.

(2-19)

89

90. How far ahead should you look down the road?

Look 12-15 seconds down the road

- Lower speeds: About one block
- Highway speeds: About 1/4 mile

(2-19)

90

91. What should you do if driving slowly?

Slowing Down

- Warn drivers behind you when you need to slow down
- Flash the brake lights with light taps on brake pedal
- Use four-way emergency flashers for times when you are driving very slow or are stopped

(2-21)

91

92. How long do you have to put out emergency warning devices if stopped on the road?

10 minutes

(2-22)

92

93. Where do you place warnings if stopped on a two-lane road carrying traffic in both directions or on an undivided highway?

- Place warning devices within ten (10) feet of the front or rear corners to mark the location of the vehicle

and

- 100 feet behind and ahead of the vehicle, on the shoulder or in the lane that you stopped in

(2-22)

93

94. Where do you place warnings if stopped beyond any hill, curve, or other obstruction that prevents seeing 500 feet?

Place warnings back beyond any hill, curve, or other obstructions that prevent other drivers from seeing the vehicle within 500 feet

(2-22)

94

95. Where do you place warning if you stop on a one-way or divided highway?

Place warning devices:
- 10 feet
- 100 feet
- and 200 feet towards approaching traffic

(2-22)

95

96. What three things add up to total stopping distance?

Perception Distance
+ Reaction Distance
+ Braking Distance
= Total Stopping Distance

(2-24)

96

97. What is the effect of speed on stopping distance?

Whenever speed is doubled (2x), stopping distance increases by four (4x) and the vehicle will have four (4x) times the destructive power if it crashes.

- High speeds increase stopping distances greatly
- Slowing down a little gains a lot in reduced braking distance

(2-25)

97

98. What is the effect of weight on stopping distance?

The heavier the vehicle, the more work the brakes must do to stop it and the more heat they absorb.

Brakes, tires, springs, and shock absorbers on heavy vehicles are designed to work best when the vehicle is fully loaded.

Empty trucks require greater stopping distance because an empty vehicle has less traction
- It can bounce and lock up its wheels, giving much poorer braking

(2-25)

98

99. What is traction?

Friction between the tires and road

(2-25)

99

100. How much space should you keep in front of you?

Below 40 mph: 1 second for each 10 ft of vehicle length
Above 40 mph: Add 1 more second for safety

(2-27)

100

101. How far ahead can you see with low beams?

Low beams: About 250 feet ahead

High beams: About 350 to 500 feet ahead

(2-32)

101

102. How far ahead can you see with high beams?

High beams: About 350 to 500 feet ahead

Low beams: About 250 feet ahead

(2-32)

102

103. How close must another vehicle be before you dim your brights?

Within 500 feet

Dim when you are not within 500 feet of another vehicle

(2-34)

103

104. How often should you check the tires in hot weather?

Every two (2) hours or every 100 miles

- If a tire is hot to the touch, remain stopped until the tires cool off; tire may blow out or catch fire
- Air pressure increases with temperature, do not let out the air or the pressure will be too low when tire cools off

(2-37)

104

105. What purpose do escape ramps serve?

Escape ramps are made to stop runaway vehicles safely without inuring drivers or passengers

(2-41)

105

106. What is a hazard?

Any road condition or other road user that is a possible danger

(2-41)

106

107. What is a conflict?

A conflict occurs when you have to change speed and/or direction to avoid hitting someone.

Examples:
- Intersections
- Needed lane changes (lane ends)
- Slow moving or stalled traffic
- Accident scenes

107

108. What is a traffic emergency?

Traffic emergencies occur when two vehicles are about to collide

Vehicle emergencies occur when tires, brakes, or other critical parts fail

(2-45)

108

109. What is a vehicle emergency?

Vehicle emergencies occur when tires, brakes, or other critical parts fail

Traffic emergencies occur when two vehicles are about to collide

(2-45)

109

110. Is stopping ALWAYS the safest thing to do in an emergency?

Stopping IS NOT the safest thing to do in an emergency

- You may have to steer away from what's ahead

(2-45)

110

111. How should you turn to avoid an emergency?

- Keep both hands on the steering wheel

- Do Not apply the brakes while you are turning (wheels may lock and cause a skid)

-Do Not turn any more than needed (the sharper the turn, the greater the chances of a skid or rollover)

- Be prepared to countersteer

(2-45)

111

112. What guidelines are important if you have to go off the road?

Avoid Braking
- Avoid using brakes until speed drops to about 20mph

Keep One Set of Wheels on the Pavement if Possible
- Helps to maintain control

Stay on the Shoulder

(2-46)

112

113. How should I return to the road from the shoulder?

Hold the wheel tightly and turn sharply enough to get right on the road safely

Don't try to edge gradually back on the road
- Tires might grab unexpectedly and cause loss of control

(2-46)

113

114. What causes hydraulic brake failure?

1. Loss of hydraulic pressure
2. Brake fade on long hills

(2-47)

114

115. What can you do in case of hydraulic brake failure?

Downshift
- Helps slow the vehicle

Pump the Brakes
- May generate enough hydraulic pressure to stop vehicle

Use the Parking Brake
- Parking brake is separate from the hydraulic brake system
- Ensure to press the release button or pull release lever at the same time you use the emer brake so you can adjust the brake pressure and keep wheels from locking up

(2-47)

115

116. What are the major signs of tire failure?

Sound
- Loud bang

Vibration
- Vehicle thumps or vibrates heavily

Feel
- Steering feels "heavy", indicates front tire failure
- "Fishtailing", indicates rear tire failure

(2-48)

116

117. What are the four causes of skids?

Over-braking
Over-steering
Over- acceleration
Driving too fast

(2-49)

117

118. What is over-braking?

Braking too hard and locking up the wheels

Skids can occur when using the speed retarder when the road is slippery

(2-49)

118

119. What are drive-wheel skids?

Most common skid is one in which rear wheels lose traction through excessive braking or acceleration

Skids caused by acceleration usually happen on ice or snow; stopped by taking foot off of accelerator

(2-49)

119

120. What happens in a rear-wheel skid?

Rear drive wheels lock

Locked wheels have less traction than rolling wheels
- Rear wheels will usually slide sideways
- Can cause a "spin-out" in a bus or truck
- Can cause a "jackknife" in a vehicle towing a trailer

(2-49)

120

121. How do you correct a rear-wheel skid?

Take foot off of the accelerator

(2-49)

121

122. What causes front-wheel skids?

Most caused by driving too fast for conditions

Other causes:
- Lack of tread on front tire
- Not enough weight on front axle when cargo is loaded

(2-50)

122

123. What happens in a front-wheel skid?

The front end tends to go in a straight line regardless of how much the steering wheel is turned

(2-50)

123

124. How do you correct for a front-wheel skid?

Let the vehicle slow down

(2-50)

124

125. What are the basic steps to do in an accident?

- Protect the area
- Notify authorities
- Care for the injured

(2-51)

125

126. What is a B:C fire extinguisher?

Used for burning liquids and electrical fires

(2-53)

126

127. What is an A:B:C fire extinguisher?

Can be used for wood/paper/cloth, burning liquids, and electrical fires

(2-53)

127

128. What fire can water be used on?

Wood, paper, and cloth

(2-53)

128

129. What fire shouldn't you use water on?

Electrical fire (can get shocked)
Gasoline fire (will spread the flames)

(2-53)

129

130. How do you extinguish the fire?

Stay as far away as possible
Position yourself upwind
Aim at source of base of the fire
Continue until whatever burning has been cooled

(2-53)

130

131. What drinks are comparable?

A few beers are the same as a few shots of hard liqour or a few glasses of wine

Same amount of alcohol:
- 12 oz glass of 5% beer
- 5 oz glass of 12% wine
- 1 1/2 oz shot of 80 proof liqour

(2-55)

131

132. What determines BAC?

Determined by:
- Amount of alcohol you drink
- How fast you drink
- Weight of person drinking

(2-56)

132

133. How many hazard classes are there?

Nine (9) hazard classes

(2-57)

133

134. What is the purpose of the transportation rules for hazardous materials?

- Contain the product
- Communicate the risk
- Ensure safe drivers and equipment

(2-57)

134

135. How do you communicate the risk of hazardous materials?

Keep shipping papers (ex: shipping orders, bills of lading, and manifests):
- In a pouch on the driver's door, or
- In clear view within reach while driving, or
- On the driver's seat when out of the vehicle

Use placards when necessary

(2-52, 2-53)

135

136. Where must shipping papers be kept

Keep shipping papers (ex: shipping orders, bills of lading, and manifests):
- In a pouch on the driver's door, or
- In clear view within reach while driving, or
- On the driver's seat when out of the vehicle

(2-53)

136

137. What are the rules for placards?

- Placarded vehicle must have at least four (4) identical placards (front, rear, both sides of vehicle)
- Must be readable from all four directions
- 10 3/4 inches square, turned on a point, in a diamond shape
- Cargo tanks and other bulk packaging display the ID number of their contents on placards or orange panels

(2-53)

137

138. Do all vehicles carrying hazardous materials need placards?

No

- Not all vehicles carrying hazmat require placards
- Can drive a vehicle carrying hazmat if it does not require placards
- If placards required, you must not drive it unless your license has the hazmat endorsement

(2-59)

138

139. What part of the cargo is the driver responsible for?

- Inspecting your cargo
- Recognizing overloads and poorly balanced weight
- Knowing your cargo is properly secured

(3-1)

139

140. How often should you inspect your cargo?

- After you have driven for 3 hours or 150 miles
- After every break you take during driving
- As often as necessary to keep the load secure

(3-1)

140

141. Define Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW)

Total weight of a single vehicle plus its load

(3-2)

141

142. Define Gross Combination Weight (GCW)

Total weight of a powered unit plus trailer(s) plus the cargo

(3-2)

142

143. Define Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR)

Maximum GVW specified by the manufacturer for a single vehicle plus its load

(3-2)

143

144. Define Gross Combination Weight Rating (GCWR)

Maximum GCW specified by the manufacturer for a specific combination of vehicles plus its load

(3-2)

144

145. Define Axle Weight

Weight transmitted to the ground by one axle or one set of axles

(3-2)

145

146. Define Tire Load

Maximum safe weight a tire can carry at a specified pressure. Rating is stated on the side of each tire.

(3-2)

146

147. Define Coupling Device Capacity

Coupling devices are rated for the maximum weight they can pull and/or carry

(3-2)

147

148. What is a bridge formula?

Permits less maximum axle weight for axles that are closer together
- Prevents overloading bridges and roadways

(3-2)

148

149. What is blocking?

Blocking is used in the front, back, and/or sides of a piece of cargo to keep it from sliding
- Shaped to fit snugly against cargo
- Secured to cargo to prevent movement of cargo

(3-4)

149

150. What is bracing?

Used to prevent movement of cargo
- Goes from the upper part of the cargo to the floor and/or walls of the cargo compartment

(3-4)

150

151. What are the rules for cargo tiedown?

Flatbed trailers or trailers w/o sides:
- Cargo must be secured to keep it from shifting or falling

Closed vans
- Tiedowns used to prevent cargo shifting

Combined strength of all cargo tiedowns must be strong enough to lift one and one-half times the weight of the piece of cargo tied down

Proper tiedown equipment must be used

Tiedowns must be attached to the vehicle correctly

Cargo should have at least one tiedown for each ten (10ft) feet of cargo

At least two (2) tiedowns, no matter how small the cargo

(3-4)

151

152. What are special forms of cargo requiring attention?

Dry Bulk Tanks
- High CG and load can shift

Hanging Meat
- Unstable with a high CG

Livestock
- Can move around in trailer, causing unsafe handling
- Keep livestock bunched together when less than full load

Over-lenght, Over-width, and/or Overweight Loads
- Requires special transit permits
- Driving usually limited to certain times
- Special equipment or signs may be needed
- May require police escort or pilot vehicles

(3-5)

152

153. What is unsafe coasting?

When approaching a turn you take your vehicle out of gear clutch depressed or gearshift in neutral for more than the length of the vehicle.

(google, quizlet)