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Flashcards in Drug Classifications P1 Deck (63):
1

Desired Effects of Adrenergics

1) vasoconstriction (narrowing of lumen of blood vessels)

2) dilation of pupils and bronchioles

3) relaxation of GI and urinary tract muscles

2

Examples of Adrenergics that treat hypotension

1) isoproterenol (ex. Isuprel)

2) norepinephrine (ex. Levophed)

3

Examples of Adrenergics for decongestion

1) naphazoline (ex. Naphcon)

2) phenylephrine (ex. Neo-Synephrine)

3) pseudoephedrine (ex. Sudafed)

4) tetrahydrozoline (ex. Visine)

4

Indications for Use of Adrenergics

1) Stop superficial bleeding

2) Raise and sustain blood pressure

3) Relieve nasal congestion

4) Relieve redness, burning, irritation, and dryness of the eyes

4

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Adrenergics

- chest pain
- tachycardia
- headache
- increased blood glucose levels
- nervousness
- tremors

5

Desired Effects of Adrenergic Blockers

1) Cause vasodilation

2) Reduce blood pressure

3) Increase muscle tone of GI walls

6

Examples of Adrenergic Blockers

1) valsartan (ex. Diovan)

2) propanolol (ex. Inderal)

3) atenolol (ex. Tenormin)

4) carvedilol (ex. Coreg)

5) tamsulosin (ex. Flomax)

6) metoprolol (ex. Lopressor)

7

Indications for Use of Adrenergic Blockers

1) Control hypertension and peripheral vascular disease

2) Treat prostatic hyperplasia

8

Side effects and adverse reactions of Adrenergic Blockers

- Confusion
- Lowering of BP
- Lowering of blood glucose
- Fatigue
- Reduced heart rate

9

Desired Effects of Analgesics

1) Reduce the sensory function of the brain

2) Block pain receptors

10

Examples of Analgesics (Nonnarcotic OTCs)

1) aspirin

2) acetaminophen (ex. Tylenol)

3) ibuprofen (ex. Advil, Motrin)

11

Examples of Analgesics (Narcotics)

1) hydrocodone w/ APAP (ex. Tylenol with codeine)

2) oxycodone (ex. OxyContin)

3) meperidine (ex. Demerol)

4) hydrocodone (ex. Vicodin)

12

Indications for Use of Analgesics

Relieve pain

13

Side effects and adverse reactions of Analgesics

Nonnarcotic:

- GI disorders
- liver and kidney disorders
- tinnitus

Narcotic:

- suppression of vital signs
- agitation
- blurred vision
- confusion
- constipation
- oversedation
- restlessness

14

Desired Effects of Anesthetics

1) Produce insensibility to pain or the sensation of pain

2) Block nerve impulses to the brain, resulting in unconsciousness

3) Dilate pupils

4) Lower blood pressure

5) Reduce respiratory and pulse rates

15

Examples of Local Anesthetics

1) benzocaine (ex. Dermoplast, Solarcaine)

2) lidocaine (ex. Xylocaine)

3) bupivacaine (ex. Marcaine)

4) lidocaine topical (ex. Lidoderm)

5) procaine (ex. Novocain)

16

Examples of General Anesthetics

1) midazolam (ex. Versed)

17

Indications for use of Anesthetics

Produce local anesthesia (absence of sensation without loss of consciousness) or general anesthesia (loss of consciousness)

18

Side effects and adverse reactions of Anesthetics

- hypotension
- cardiopulmonary depression
- sedation
- nausea
- vomiting
- headaches

19

Desired Effect of Antacids/Proton-Pump Inhibitors

Reduce acidity in the stomach

20

Examples of Antacids

1) omeprazole (ex. Prilosec)

2) esomeprazole (ex. Nexium)

3) rabeprazole (ex. Aciphex)

4) lansoprazole (ex. Prevacid)

5) pantoprazole (Protonix)

OTCs:
1) magaldrate (ex. Riopan)

2) calcium carbonate (ex. Maalox)

21

Indications for Use of Antacids

1) Treat gastric hyperacidity

2) Treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

22

Side effects and adverse reactions of Antacids

- constipation
- diarrhea
- electrolyte imbalance
- flatulence
- kidney stones
- osteoporosis

23

Desired Effects of Antianxiety Agents

Reduce anxiety and tension

24

Examples of Antianxiety Agents

1) chlordiazepoxide (ex. Librium)

2) clonazepam (ex. Klonopin)

3) chlorazepate (ex. Tranxene)

4) diazepam (ex. Valium)

5) alprazolam (ex. Xanax)

6) temazepam (ex. Restoril)

7) triazolam (ex. Halcion)

25

Indications for Use of Antianxiety Agents

1) Produce calmness and release muscle tension

2) Sedation

26

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antianxiety Agents

- agitation
- amnesia
- bizarre behaviors
- confusion
- reduced WBC count
- depression
- drowsiness
- lethargy
- oversedation
- tremors
- photosensitivity

27

Desired Effects of Antibiotics

Kill or inhibit growth of microorganisms

28

Examples of Antibiotics

1) azithromycin (ex. Zithromax)

2) levofloxacin (ex. Levaquin)

3) cefaclor (ex. Ceclor)

4) tetracycline (ex. Sumycin)

5) amoxicillin (ex. Amoxil)

6) amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (ex. Augmentin)

7) cefadroxil (ex. Duricef)

8) ciprofloxacin (ex. Cipro)

9) cephalexin (ex. Keflex)

10) doxycycline (ex. Vibramycin)

29

Indications for Use of Antibiotics

Treat bacterial invasions and infections

30

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antibiotics

- hypersensitivity reaction

- nausea

- diarrhea

- GI distress

- light sensitivity

- urticaria

31

Desired Effects of Anticholinergics

1) Parasympathetic blocking agents

2) Reduce spasms in smooth muscles

32

Examples of Anticholinergics

1) scopolamine or atropine sulfate

2) tiotropium inhalation (ex. Spiriva)

3) dicyclomine (ex. Bentyl)

4) ipratropium (ex. Atrovent)

33

Indications for Use of Anticholinergics

1) Dry secretions before surgery

2) Prevent bronchospasm

34

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Anticholinergics

- blurred vision

- confusion

- reduced GI and genitourinary motility

- dilation of pupils

- fever

- flushing

- headache

- increased heart rate

35

Desired Effects of Anticoagulants

Delay or block clotting of blood

36

Examples of Anticoagulants

1) rivaroxaban (ex. Xarelto)

2) heparin

3) enoxaparin sodium (ex. Lovenox)

4) warfarin sodium (ex. Coumadin)

5) tinzaparin (ex. Innohep)

37

Primary Uses of Anticoagulants

1) Treat blood clots, thrombophlebitis

2) Prevent clot formation

38

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Anticoagulants

- increased bleeding

- blood irregularities

- GI/liver/kidney disease

39

Desired Effects of Anticonvulsants

1) Prevent seizures

2) Reduce excessive stimulation of the brain

40

Examples of Anticonvulsants

1) clonazepam (ex. Klonopin)

2) gabapentin (ex. Neurontin)

3) phenytoin (ex. Dilantin)

4) phenobarbital

5) carbamazepine (ex. Tegretol)

6) lamotrigine (ex. Lamictal)

7) pregabalin (ex. Lyrica)

8) topiramate (ex. Topamax)

9) valproic acid (ex. Depakene)

41

Indications for Use of Anticonvulsants

Treat epilepsy and other neurological disorders (e.g. peripheral neuropathy)

42

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Anticonvulsants

- sedation

- vertigo

- visual disturbances

- GI disturbances

- liver complications

43

Desired Effect of Antidepressants

Treat depression

44

Examples of Antidepressants

1) venlafaxine hydrochloride (ex. Effexor)

2) sertraline (ex. Zoloft)

3) escitalopram (ex. Lexapro)

4) duloxetine (ex. Cymbalta)

5) bupropion (ex. Wellbutrin)

6) trazodone HCl (ex. Desyrel)

7) fluoxetine (ex. Prozac)

8) imipramine pamoate (ex. Tofranil)

9) amitriptyline (ex. Elavil)

10) citalopram (ex. Celexa)

45

Indications for Use of Antidepressants

1) Elevate mood

2) Treat other neurologic disorders (e.g. migraines)

46

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antidepressants

- anorexia

- anxiety

- sexual dysfunction

- fatigue

- drowsiness

- vertigo

- weight gain

- confusion

- blurred vision

47

Desired Effect of Antiemetics

Act on hypothalamic center in the brain to reduce or prevent nausea and vomiting

48

Examples of Antiemetics

1) prochlorperazine (ex. Compazine)

2) trimethobenzamide (ex. Tigan)

3) metoclopramide (ex. Reglan)

4) granisetron (ex. Kytril)

5) ondansetron (ex. Zofran)

6 promethazine (ex. Phenergan)

49

Indications for Use of Antiemetics

1) Prevent and relieve nausea and vomiting

2) Manage motion sickness

50

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antiemetics

- dry mouth

- sedation

- drowsiness

- diarrhea

- blurred vision

51

Desired Effects of Antifungals

Slow or retard multiplication of fungi

52

Examples of Antifungals

1) miconazole (ex. Monistat)

2) nystatin (ex. Mycostatin)

3) fluconazole (ex. Diflucan)

4) ketoconazole (ex. Nizoral)

5) terbinafine (ex. Lamisil)

53

Indications for Use of Antifungals

Treat systemic or local fungal infections

54

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antifungals

- anemia

- chills

- hypotension

- vertigo

- fever

- kidney and liver damage

- malaise

- photophobia

- muscle and joint pain

55

Desired Effects of Antihistamines

1) Counteract the effects of histamine by blocking action in tissues

2) May be used to inhibit gastric secretions

56

Examples of Antihistamines

1) cetirizine (ex. Zyrtec)

2) fexofenadine (ex. Allegra)

3) loratadine (ex. Claritin, Alavert)

4) chlorpheniramine (ex. Chlor-Trimeton)

5) diphenhydramine (ex. Benadryl)

6) promethazine (ex. Phenergan)

7) cimetidine (ex. Tagamet)

8) ranitidine (ex. Zantac)

57

Indications for Use of Antihistamines

1) Relieve allergies

2) Prevent gastric ulcers

58

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antihistamines

- CNS depression

- muscle weakness

- epigastric distress

- dry mouth

59

Desired Effects of Antihypertensive Agents

1) Block nerve impulses that cause arteries to constrict

2) Slow the heart rate, reducing its contractility

3) Restrict the hormone aldosterone in the blood

60

Examples of Antihypertensive Agents

1) amlodipine (ex. Norvasc)

2) atenolol (ex. Tenormin)

3) doxazosin mesylate (ex. Cardura)

4) metoprolol (ex. Lopressor or Toprol)

5) methyldopa (ex. Aldomet)

6) valsartan (ex. Diovan)

7) amlodipine plus benazepril (ex. Lotrel)

8) propranolol (ex. Inderal)

9) diltiazem (ex. Cardizem)

10) nifedipine (ex. Procardia)

11) benazepril (ex. Lotensin)

12) lisinopril (ex. Prinivil, Zestril)

13) losartan (ex. Cozaar)

61

Indications for Use of Antihypertensive Agents

Reduce and control blood pressure

62

Side Effects and Adverse Reactions of Antihypertensive Agents

- headache

- vertigo

- GI disturbances

- rash

- hypotension

- nonproductive cough