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Flashcards in Drugs Deck (28):
1

What type of drug is nifedipine? Indications? Side effects?

 

Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (peripheral vasodilator)

HTN, angina

Peripheral oedema that doesn't respond to diuretics

1

What is the method of action and indication of methotrexate?

Inhibition of folic acid

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

2

What is frusemide?

Loop diuretic

Acts on the thick ascending limb of loop of Henle

Causes K+ loss due to increased Na+ in collecting duct (actions of aldosterone)

3

What is ototoxic mean?

Toxic to the ear - specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve

4

Which diuretic is used in HTN?

Thiazides

4

What type of drug is amlodipine?

Dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (peripheral vasodilator)

4

What is the mechanism of action of metoclopramide?

Blocks dopamine receptor (and when given at higher doses) serotinin receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone in the CNS

Enhances the activity of ACh in the gut to increase motility

5

What type of drugs rapamil?

Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker

6

What is Tazocin?

A combination of the beta-lactam piperacillin and beta-lactamase inhibitor tazobactam 

Commonly indicated in patients with hospitally acquired pneumonia/septicaemia

8

What is celecoxib?

An NSAID used for some arthritis

9

What is novorapid?

Fast-acting insulin analog

9

What type of drug is midazolam?

A benzodiazepine

9

What is the mechanism of action and effect of benzodiazepines?

Potent inhibitor of GABA in the CNS

Antianolytic, sedative, hypnotic, muscle relaxant, antiepileptic

11

What is spirolactone?

K-sparring diuretic > aldosterone receptor antagonist

12

What are the names of some non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers?

Verapamil

Diltiazem

13

What type of drug is diltiazem?

Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker

14

What is Fentanyl?

Synthetic opioid analgesic

15

What is the triple whammy effect of NSAIDs, diuretics, and ACEIs?

NSAIDs block prostaglandin production, prostaglandin provides tonic vasodilation of afferent renal arterioles

ACEI block angiotensin II, which exerts tonic vasoconstriction of efferent arterioles

Diuretics reduce plasma volume and renal plasma flow 

 

= Reduction in GFR = renal damage

17

What is lactulose indicated for?

Chronic constipation

Hepatic encephalopathy

19

What is dilantin?

Anti-convulsant for management of complex partial seizures and generalised tonic-clonic seizures

20

Which are the centrally acting calcium channel blockers, dihydropyridines or non-dihydropyridines

Non-dihydropyridines

21

What is the mechanism of action of calcium channel blockers?

Inhibit the slow inward calcium current in cardiac arteriolar muscle cells, reducing contractility, SA activity, AV node conduction and vascular tone

 

Can be vascularly selective - dihydropyridine CCBs > arteriolar vasodilation > reduce afterload

 

Or cardiac and vascular selective with negative inotropic and chronotropic properties > used for arrhythmias and angina

23

What is targin?

Oxycodone/Naloxone opioid analgesic

Oxycodone is pain relief

Naloxone reduces opioid-induced euphoria & constipation

24

What dose of naloxone is used to reverse opioid overdose? What pharmakinetic factor must be considered?

0.4 to 2mg initial, repeated every 2-3mins until reversal (to a maximum of 10mg)

The duration of action of naloxone is shorter than opioids, must monitor patient

25

Which diuretic is used in heart failure?

Loop diuretic ie frusemide 

26

What type of drug is isosorbide mononitrate?

A nitrate used in the treatment of angina

Dilates blood vessels

27

What is the names of some dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers?

Nifedipine

Amlodipine

28

How does lactulose treat hepatic encephalopathy?

Lactulose helps trap the ammonia (NH3) in the colon. It does this by using gut flora to acidify the colon, transforming the freely diffusible ammonia into ammonium (NH4+) which can no longer diffuse back into the blood.