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Flashcards in Drugs Deck (75):
1

Acamprosate

FDA approved drug for treatment of alcohol dependence, effects on neurotransmitter receptors,
lowers risk of relapse

2

Chlordiazepoxide

long-acting sedative-hypnotic drug used for alcohol withdrawal syndrome. allows less frequent dosing, then tapers off drug.

3

Diazepam

long-acting sedative-hypnotic drug used for alcohol withdrawal syndrome. allows less frequent dosing, then tapers off drug.

4

Disulfiram

Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, stops Acetaldehyde -> acetate (Alcohol)
FDA approved drug for treatment of alcohol dependence
Extreme discomfort to those who drink alcohol. no longer commonly used.

5

Fomepizole

Alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, stops NAD+ ->NADH

6

Lorazepam

Short-acting, sedative-hypnotic drug used for alcohol withdrawal syndrome

7

Naltrexone

FDA approved drug for treatment of alcohol dependence.
Long acting opioid antagonist, reduced craving for alcohol, can cause liver damage, blocks effects of usual dosages of opioids.

8

Oxazepam

Short-acting, sedative-hypnotic drug used for alcohol withdrawal syndrome

9

Thiamine

essential nutrient given to protect against Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, in cases of chronic alcohol consumption

10

Carbidopa

Inhibits DOPA decarboxylase, does NOT cross blood brain barrier, allows more L-DOPA to enter the brain and reduces daily requirement by 75%

11

Amantadine

antiviral again, found by chance to have anti-parkinson effects, less efficacious than L-DOPA

12

Apomorphine

potent dopamine d2 receptor agonist, subcutaneous injection, lasts up to two hours, benefits within 10 minutes (parkinsons)

13

Carbidopa

Inhibits DOPA decarboxylase, does NOT cross blood brain barrier, allows more L-DOPA to enter the brain and reduces daily requirement by 75% (parkinsons)

14

Entacapone

Catachol-O-Methyltransferase Inhibitor (COMT), preferred, not associated with hepatotoxicity (parkinsons)

15

Pramipexole

D3 Receptor agonist, effective as monotherapy, permits reduced L-DOPA use, neuroprotective effect

16

Rasagiline

MAO-B Inhibitor, more potent than selegiline at preventing MPTP-parkinsonism
DO NOT TAKE WITH ANTIDEPRESSANTS OR NONSELECTIVE MAOIS

17

Ropinirole

D2 receptor agonist, effective as monotherapy, permits reduced L-DOPA dose

18

Pramipexole

D3 Receptor agonist, effective as monotherapy, permits reduced L-DOPA use, neuroprotective effect (parkinsons)

19

Rasagiline

MAO-B Inhibitor, more potent than selegiline at preventing MPTP-parkinsonism
DO NOT TAKE WITH ANTIDEPRESSANTS OR NONSELECTIVE MAOIS (parkinsons)

20

Ropinirole

D2 receptor agonist, effective as monotherapy, permits reduced L-DOPA dose (parkinsons)

21

Tolacapone

catachol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor (COMT), associated with hepatotoxicity, both peripheral and CNS effects, crosses the blood brain barrier, more potent, longer duration

22

Selegiline

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor, selective irreversible inhibitor of MAO-B (MAO-A at high dose), stops metabolism of dopamine into DOPAC
For patients with fluctuating response to L-DOPA
DO NOT TAKE WITH ANTIDEPRESSANTS (parkinsons)

23

Tolacapone

catachol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor (COMT), associated with hepatotoxicity, both peripheral and CNS effects, crosses the blood brain barrier, more potent, longer duration (parkinson)

24

Burpropion

resembles amphetamine and has CNS activating properties, not commonly associated with sexual side effects, modest to moderate inhibitor of norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake, no direct effects on serotonin system

25

Citalopram

SSRI,

26

Desvenlafaxine

Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), balanced inhibitor of both SERT and NET

27

Duloxetine

Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), balanced inhibitor for both SERT and NET

28

Escitalopram

SSRI,

29

Fluoxetine

SSRI, most common, serotonergic antidepressant, inhibits serotonin transporter (SERT), indications for GAD, PTSD, OCD, panic disorder, PMDD, and bulimia, inhibitor of CYP2D6

30

Fluvoxamine

SSRI, inhibits CYP3A4

31

Isocarboxazid

irreversible, non-selective MAOI

32

Levomilnacipran

Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), more potent for NET than SERT

33

Mirtazapine

tetracycylic and unicyclic antidepressants, not commonly associated with sexual side effects

34

Paroxetine

SSRI, inhibits CYP2D6

35

Phenelzine

irreversible, non selective MAOI

36

Selegiline

irreversible (MAO-B) MAOI, amphetamine-like metabolites, transdermal and sublingual dosage to bypass liver and gut

37

Sertraline

SSRI,

38

Tranylcypromine

irreversible, non selective MAOI, amphetamine-like metabolites

39

Trazodone

5-HT receptor antagonist, prescribed until replaced by SSRIs, unlabeled hypnotic, highly sedating, no association with tolerance or dependance

40

Venlafaxine

Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), weak inhibitor of NET

41

Vilazodone

tetracyclic antidepressant, potentially binds to serotonin transporter, but minimally to dopamine and norepinephrine transproter, potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor and partial agonist of 5-HT receptor

42

Vortioxetine

5-HT receptor antagonist, inhibits SERT and NET but not an SSRI or SNRI, may improve cognition in depressed patients

43

Morphine

opioid analgesic isolated from opium poppy

44

codeine

semisynthetic morphine, less efficacious than morphine, used in combo with aspirin and acetaminophen

45

oxycodone

semisynthetic morphine, less efficacious than morphine, used in combination with aspirin and acetaminophen

46

hydromorphone

semisynthetic morphine

47

Methadone

opioid agonist, bioavailability exceeds morphine, good for hard to treat pain (cancer pain) long half life, addict maintenance therapy

48

Meperidine

strong opiod agonist, significant antimuscarinic effects, possibility of causing seizures

49

fentanyl

opiod agonist

50

heroin

potent and fast acting opiod agonist

51

Buprenorphine

potent, long lasting partial opioid agonist, used in addict detoxification and maintenance therapy

52

Naloxone

opioid antagonist, poor oral efficacy, short duration of action must give frequently or intravenously, used in acute opiod overdose

53

Naltrexone

opioid antagonist, well absorbed orally but rapid first pass effect, half life of 10 hours, used in maintenance therapy with drug addicts, decreases alcohol cravings.

54

Lorazepam

benzodiazepine, Gaba-dependent action, used to treat insomnia

55

flurazepam

benzodiazepine, Gaba-dependent action, used to treat insomnia, long acting hypnotic effective in sustaining sleep

56

quazepam

benzodiazepine, Gaba-dependent action, used for insomnia

57

triazolam

benzodiazepine, Gaba-dependent action, used for insomnia

58

temazepam

benzodiazepine, Gaba-dependent action, used for insomnia, long acting hypnotic effective in sustaining sleep

59

diazepam

benzodiazepine, Gaba-dependent action, used for insomnia

60

amobarbitol

barbiturates, Gaba-in/dependent action, used for insomnia, long acting hypnotic effective in sustaining sleep

61

pentobarbital

barbiturates, Gaba-in/dependent action, used for insomnia

62

secobarbital

barbiturates, Gaba-in/dependent action, used for insomnia

63

alcohol

acts like barbiturates,

64

Doxylamine

antihistaminics, nyquil, used for insomnia

65

diphenhydramine

antihistaminics, benadryl, used for insomnia

66

zolpiden

ambien, used to treat insomnia

67

Phenothiazines

chlorpromazine (low potency), first generation antipsychotics, d2 antagonism

68

Chlorpromazine

(low potency), weight gain

69

Butyrophenones

haloperidol, high potency, first generation antipsychotic, d2 antagonism

70

Haloperidol

high potency

71

Clozapine

second gen antipsychotic, Combined actions at 5HT2A and D2 receptors responsible for therapeutic efficacy and lower risk of EPS, TD, hyperprolactinemia compared to typical (FGAs)

72

Olanzapine

second gen antipsychotic, Combined actions at 5HT2A and D2 receptors responsible for therapeutic efficacy and lower risk of EPS, TD, hyperprolactinemia compared to typical (FGAs)

73

Risperidone

second gen antipsychotic, Combined actions at 5HT2A and D2 receptors responsible for therapeutic efficacy and lower risk of EPS, TD, hyperprolactinemia compared to typical (FGAs)

74

Ziprasidone

second generation antipsychotic, Combined actions at 5HT2A and D2 receptors responsible for therapeutic efficacy and lower risk of EPS, TD, hyperprolactinemia compared to typical (FGAs)

75

Aripiprazole

second gen antipsychotic, Combined actions at 5HT2A and D2 receptors responsible for therapeutic efficacy and lower risk of EPS, TD, hyperprolactinemia compared to typical (FGAs)