Flashcards in Drugs Deck (23)
Naltrexone and Naloxone are both opiate receptor antagonists, but what are their differing effects?
Naltrexone - blocks feeling of pleasure
Naloxone - used in emergencies to reverse opiate intoxication
Appropriate drug for alcohol addiction?
What is the mechanism of action for typical antipsychotic drugs. Give 2 examples and a side effect?
D2 receptor antagonist
What type of drugs can induce psychosis and what is there mechanism of action and therefore treatment?
Amphetamines, cocaine, L-dopa
D2 antagonist - typical antipsychotic
Give an example of a an atypical antipsychotic, what type of receptor is this more selective for?
6 side affects of clozapine
What is the glutamate hypothesis with regard to psychosis and what is the drug related evidence to support this?
PCP is a flugtamate receptor (NMDA) receptor antagonist and leads to hallucinations
What are the 2 overall effects of atypical antipsychotics?
Increase DA activity in PFC
Decrease DA in NAcc
Give an example of a tricyclic antidepressant, what is their mechanism of action?
block reuptake of monoamines (Ser, NE, E, DA)
What is Fluoxetine?
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
3 advantages of SSRIs
Efficacy equal to tryciclics in outpatients
Large spectrum of action (OCD, PTSD, Panic, GAD, social anxiety)
Low toxicity and safe in overdose
3 side effects of SSRIs
gastro-intestinal symptoms (nausea, diarrhea)
headache, Irritability, Anxiety
reduction of libido and sexual dysfunction
5 side effects of tricyclic antidepressants
cardiac toxicity in overdose
What is clozapine and it's mechanism of action?
3 advantages of lithium for treatment of affective disorders
Possible efficacy on impulsive and violent behaviours
Strongest evidence for prevention of relapses of any polarity
4 disadvantages of lithium
Narrow therapeutic index
blood tests every 3 months for the 1st year
Adverse long-term effects on Kidney function with excessive levels
Risk of Lithium toxicity
What is sodium valporate and it's mechanism of action
sodium channel blocker
What is carbamazapine and its mechanism of action?
4 drugs to treat manic episodes
Dopamine antagonists (haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone and quetiapine)
3 alternatives to lithium treatment
Dopamine antagonists/partial agonists
4 adverse affects for long term pharmalogical treatment of affective disorders
Weight gain (most medications, particularly Olanzapine and Quetiapine)
Metabolic syndrome (Olanzapine, Quetiapine, Risperidone)
Hyperprolactinemia (Dopamine antagonists)
Drug treatment for panic disorder and mechanism of action?
Benzodiazapines - (Diazepam) Valium GABAa agonist
SSRI - flouxetine - prozac