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Flashcards in Drugs Deck (23)
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1

Naltrexone and Naloxone are both opiate receptor antagonists, but what are their differing effects?

Naltrexone - blocks feeling of pleasure
Naloxone - used in emergencies to reverse opiate intoxication

2

Appropriate drug for alcohol addiction?

Naltrexone

3

What is the mechanism of action for typical antipsychotic drugs. Give 2 examples and a side effect?

D2 receptor antagonist
Haloperidol
Chlorpromazine
Parkinsonian like

4

What type of drugs can induce psychosis and what is there mechanism of action and therefore treatment?

D2 agonists
Amphetamines, cocaine, L-dopa
D2 antagonist - typical antipsychotic

5

Give an example of a an atypical antipsychotic, what type of receptor is this more selective for?

clozapine
D4

6

6 side affects of clozapine

Weight gain
hypersalivation
tachycardia
hypotension
neutropenia

7

What is the glutamate hypothesis with regard to psychosis and what is the drug related evidence to support this?

PCP is a flugtamate receptor (NMDA) receptor antagonist and leads to hallucinations

8

What are the 2 overall effects of atypical antipsychotics?

Increase DA activity in PFC
and
Decrease DA in NAcc

9

Give an example of a tricyclic antidepressant, what is their mechanism of action?

Amytryptiline
block reuptake of monoamines (Ser, NE, E, DA)

10

What is Fluoxetine?

Prozac
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

11

3 advantages of SSRIs

Efficacy equal to tryciclics in outpatients

Large spectrum of action (OCD, PTSD, Panic, GAD, social anxiety)

Low toxicity and safe in overdose

12

3 side effects of SSRIs

gastro-intestinal symptoms (nausea, diarrhea)
headache, Irritability, Anxiety
reduction of libido and sexual dysfunction

13

5 side effects of tricyclic antidepressants

Constipation,
orthostatic hypotension,
dry mouth,
drowsiness,
cardiac toxicity in overdose

14

What is clozapine and it's mechanism of action?

antipsychotic
D2/D3 antagonist

15

3 advantages of lithium for treatment of affective disorders

Anti-suicidal effects
Possible efficacy on impulsive and violent behaviours
Strongest evidence for prevention of relapses of any polarity

16

4 disadvantages of lithium

Narrow therapeutic index
blood tests every 3 months for the 1st year
Adverse long-term effects on Kidney function with excessive levels
Risk of Lithium toxicity

17

What is sodium valporate and it's mechanism of action

Anticonvulsant
sodium channel blocker
(teratogenic)

18

What is carbamazapine and its mechanism of action?

Anticonvulsant

19

4 drugs to treat manic episodes

Dopamine antagonists (haloperidol, olanzapine, risperidone and quetiapine)

20

3 alternatives to lithium treatment

Valproate
Dopamine antagonists/partial agonists
Carbamazepine

21

4 adverse affects for long term pharmalogical treatment of affective disorders

Weight gain (most medications, particularly Olanzapine and Quetiapine)
Metabolic syndrome (Olanzapine, Quetiapine, Risperidone)
Hyperprolactinemia (Dopamine antagonists)
Tardive dyskinesia

22

Drug treatment for panic disorder and mechanism of action?

Benzodiazapines - (Diazepam) Valium GABAa agonist
SSRI - flouxetine - prozac

23

Best drug for treating OCD?

SSRI - fluoxetine - prozac