Drugs and their Targets in Type 2 diabetes mellitus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Drugs and their Targets in Type 2 diabetes mellitus Deck (17):
1

How do current therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus act?

Increase secretion of insulin by dependent action
Decrease insulin resistance and reduce hepatic glucose output by insulin dependent action
Slow glucose absorption from the GI tract - insulin independent action
Enhance glucose excretion by the kidney

2

How do orlistats work

Actively block lipase in the GI that helps with weight loss.

3

What types of drugs increase the secretion of insulin

Sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors

4

What types of drugs decrease insulin resistance and reduce hepatic glucose output

Biguanides
Thiazolidinediones

5

What types of drugs slow the glucose absorption form the GI race

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors

6

What types of drugs enhance glucose excretion by the kidney

Sodium-glucose type 2 inhbitors SGLT2 inhibitors

7

What allows glucose to diffuse down its concentration gradient

GLUT2 (the glucose transporter)

8

Why is it important for glucose to become phosphorylated by glucokinase

So the glucose-6-phosphate is ready for glycolysis in the mitochondria

9

What ultimately changes insulin release

The ratio of ATP:ADP

10

What causes the closure in K+ channels in the membrane

ATP

11

What charge leaves the cell when glucose levels are low

Positive charge leaving a negative charge in the beta cell causing it to be hyperpolarised

12

As ATP rises, the K+ channel closes, what happens to the charge in the cell

K+ doesn't leave the cell and so we get depolarisation

13

What does depolarisation trigger

The opening of calcium dependent calcium channels

14

What is the octomeric complex composed of

4 potassium inward rectifier 6.2subunits and four sulphonylurea receptor subunits (SUR1)

15

What forms a potassium selective ion channel

Tetramer of Kir6.2 subunits

16

What do SUR1 subunits regulate

Potassium channel activity

17

What does ATP binding to each of the Kir6.2 subunits do

Closes the channel causing depolarisation of the Beta cel and insulin release (when extracellular glucose is high )