Flashcards in Drugs Of Abuse Deck (25):
Define a drug of abuse?
A drug taken out of choice not for medical need
What are the most common legal drugs or abuse?
Caffeine, nicotine and ethanol
How many types of drugs of abuse are there?
What is often the deciding factor on to whether drugs of a use should be legal or not?
Revenue of tax vs. cost of harm
What % of the UKs population smoke?
What % of the worlds population smoke?
What are the effects nicotine cause to the CNS?
Acts on alpha2beta4 subtype of nicotine acetylcholine esterase- effects cortex and hippocampus and the ventral regimental area (reward pathway- dopamine) Increase in transmitter realise and neuronal excitation,
Desensitisation to the drug,
Receptor increase in chronic administration.
What does nicotine do to the spinal level?
Inhibits spinal reflexes and skeletal muscle relaxation,
Increases lever of brain function can have wake up or calm down effects
What effects does nicotine have in the periphery?
Stimulation of autonomic ganglia and sensory receptors. Tachycardia, sweating, increased blood pressure and reduce GI motility. Suppresses appetite.
Where is the nicotine absorbed and what % from the cigarette is absorbed?
Mainly in the lungs and around 10%
What can be taken to reduce nicotine cravings?
Patches of nicotine depot, gum and nasal sprays
What type of dependance is gained from nicotine?
Both physical and physcological
What are the physical withdrawal symptoms of nicotine?
Irritability, impaired psychomotor performance, aggression, sleep disturbances
What are the harmful effects of nicotine?
Shortened life expectancy, 10% of the worlds deaths (from CVD, cancer, chronic bronchitis)
How is nicotine dependance alleviated?
By nicotine or amphetamine
What are the two drug treatments for nicotine dependance?
Nicotine replacement therapy ( successful if given with psychotherapy) and bupropion ( can relate to eating disorders and lower seizure threshold)
What is ethanols effect on the CNS?
Increase neuronal activity by decreasing disinhibition in reward pathways. Enhances GABAa inhibition, inhibits Ca2+ entry! inhibits adenosine transport
What are the acute effects of ethanol?
Slurred speech, decrease in motor-coordination, increased confidence, euphoria, large mood swings, judgement fails, coma, death
What are the less acute effects of ethanol?
Vasodilation, salivary and gastric excretion (reflex from irritant), endocrine, diuresis (inhibition of secretion of anti diuretic hormone)
What are the chronic effects of ethanol?
Hypertension, irreversible neurological effects (cerebral and demential cortex thinning), males=feminisation, effects in the liver (death from haemorrhage), foetal development effects, cardiac abnormalities.
What does ethanol do to the liver?
Increased fat accumulation- fatty liver
Irreversible hepatic necrosis
What are the two disorders/syndromes from ethanol in foetal development?
Foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)- abnormal features, retarded growth/mental, cardiac abnormalities.
Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND)- behavioural problems, more common
Where is ethanol absorbed?
In the stomach
Where is ethanol metabolised and what % absorbed is metabolised?
In the liver and 90%