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Flashcards in Drugs Of Abuse Deck (25):
0

Define a drug of abuse?

A drug taken out of choice not for medical need

1

What are the most common legal drugs or abuse?

Caffeine, nicotine and ethanol

2

How many types of drugs of abuse are there?

5

3

What is often the deciding factor on to whether drugs of a use should be legal or not?

Revenue of tax vs. cost of harm

4

What % of the UKs population smoke?

27%

5

What % of the worlds population smoke?

18%

6

What are the effects nicotine cause to the CNS?

Acts on alpha2beta4 subtype of nicotine acetylcholine esterase- effects cortex and hippocampus and the ventral regimental area (reward pathway- dopamine) Increase in transmitter realise and neuronal excitation,
Desensitisation to the drug,
Receptor increase in chronic administration.

7

What does nicotine do to the spinal level?

Inhibits spinal reflexes and skeletal muscle relaxation,
Increases lever of brain function can have wake up or calm down effects

8

What effects does nicotine have in the periphery?

Stimulation of autonomic ganglia and sensory receptors. Tachycardia, sweating, increased blood pressure and reduce GI motility. Suppresses appetite.

9

Where is the nicotine absorbed and what % from the cigarette is absorbed?

Mainly in the lungs and around 10%

10

What can be taken to reduce nicotine cravings?

Patches of nicotine depot, gum and nasal sprays

11

What type of dependance is gained from nicotine?

Both physical and physcological

12

What are the physical withdrawal symptoms of nicotine?

Irritability, impaired psychomotor performance, aggression, sleep disturbances

13

What are the harmful effects of nicotine?

Shortened life expectancy, 10% of the worlds deaths (from CVD, cancer, chronic bronchitis)

14

How is nicotine dependance alleviated?

By nicotine or amphetamine

15

What are the two drug treatments for nicotine dependance?

Nicotine replacement therapy ( successful if given with psychotherapy) and bupropion ( can relate to eating disorders and lower seizure threshold)

16

What is ethanols effect on the CNS?

Increase neuronal activity by decreasing disinhibition in reward pathways. Enhances GABAa inhibition, inhibits Ca2+ entry! inhibits adenosine transport

17

What are the acute effects of ethanol?

Slurred speech, decrease in motor-coordination, increased confidence, euphoria, large mood swings, judgement fails, coma, death

18

What are the less acute effects of ethanol?

Vasodilation, salivary and gastric excretion (reflex from irritant), endocrine, diuresis (inhibition of secretion of anti diuretic hormone)

19

What are the chronic effects of ethanol?

Hypertension, irreversible neurological effects (cerebral and demential cortex thinning), males=feminisation, effects in the liver (death from haemorrhage), foetal development effects, cardiac abnormalities.

20

What does ethanol do to the liver?

Increased fat accumulation- fatty liver
Hepatitis- inflamed
Irreversible hepatic necrosis

21

What are the two disorders/syndromes from ethanol in foetal development?

Foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)- abnormal features, retarded growth/mental, cardiac abnormalities.
Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND)- behavioural problems, more common

22

Where is ethanol absorbed?

In the stomach

23

Where is ethanol metabolised and what % absorbed is metabolised?

In the liver and 90%

24

What is the equation of ethanol metabolism and what intermediate causes a 'hangover'?

Ethanol to ethanal (aka acetylaldehyde) to acetic acid.

Ethanol is what causes the unpleasant side effects