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Flashcards in Drugs of Abuse Deck (61):
1

compulsive seeking and consumption of a drug, despite adverse consequences

addiction

2

when an individual functions "normally" only in the presence of a drug

dependence

3

hallmark = withdrawal

depdendence

4

cessation of drug use manifests as physical disturabce

dependence

5

most common psychoactive drug used worldwide

caffeine

6

CNS stimulants

-caffeine

7

-mental alertness, restlessness, difficulty falling asleep, itteriness, stomach irritation, tachycardia

caffeine

8

-symptoms emerge w/in 12-24 hrs and include: headache, fatigue, anxiety, irritability, depressed mood, difficulty concentrating

caffeine withdrawal

9

-antagonist at adenosine receptors
-promotes release of other NTs: monoamines like dopamine, NE; and Ach

caffeine MOA

10

-staining, degradation of enamel, caries

caffeine and dentistry

11

-leads to 88,000 deaths annually in US; 3rd highest preventable cause
-leading preventable cause of death worldwide ban 15-49

alcohol

12

CNS depressant

-alcohol
-barbs/benzos

13

-euphoria, relaxation, impaired motor and sensory function, impaired cognition, n+v, slurred speech

alcohol

14

-symptoms start 6-24 hrs after last drink and last up to 1 wk

alcohol withdrawal

15

-anxiety, depression, insomnia, tremors, seizures, hallucinations

alcohol withdrawal

16

occurs 48-96 hrs after last drink; more severe symptomology, profound confusion

delirium tremens

17

withdrawal from these 3 drugs can be FATAL

1) alcohol
2) benzos
3) barbs

18

-highly complex, wide ranging pharmacological profile
-positive allosteric modulator of GABA receptors; enhances endogenous effects of inhibitory NTs
-increases dopamine

alcohol MOA

19

-heavy use assoc w/increased risk of oral cancer
-mucosal lesions
-craniofacial birth defects (FAS)

alcohol

20

-skin folds at corner of eye, low nasal bridge, short nose, small eye opening and mid face, thin upper lip, indistinct philtrum, small head

-facial features of FAS

21

often smoked but can be consumed orally or taken in different preparations

pot

22

primary psychoactive chemical is delta-9-tetrahydrocanniabinol (THC)

pot

23

T/F: use of pot > tobacco in high school seniors

true

24

t/f: use of pot increases among 12th graders as perceived risk decreases

true

25

-altered sensory and time perception, euphoria, impairment of cognition and memory, motor impairment, paranoia, increased appetite

pot effects

26

-irritability, sleeplessness, decreased appetite, anxiety, drug craving

pot withdrawal

27

higher efficacy than THC and high degree of variability; more potent

synthetic pot

28

-binds to and activates cannabinoid (CB) receptors, indirect elevation of dopamine

pot MOA

29

primarily in CNS, mediates psychoactive effects

CB1

30

primarily in periphery, some in brain microglia

CB2

31

-increased risk of poor dental hygiene, oral infections, premalignant lesions w/in oral mucosa, increased risk of oral cancer
-dry mouth, caries

-pot and dds

32

US accounts for 5% of worldwide population but uses 80% of this drug

opioids

33

twice as potent as morphine

heroin (diacetylmorphine)

34

2nd most abundant alkaloid in opioid poppy

codeine

35

synthetic, highly potent (80-100x > morphine)

fentanyl

36

2 drugs used as replacement opioid therapy

1) methadone
2) buprenorphine

37

like methadone but partial mu agonist

buprenorphine

38

long duration of action, used for maintenance opioid therapy

methadone

39

-analgesia, euphoria, sedation, resp depression, motor impairment, antitussive, constipation

-opioid effects

40

-dysphoria, irritability, drug craving, sweating, n+v, tremors, muscle pain

opioid withdrawal

41

-analgesic and abuse related effects are mediated by mu opioid receptors
-indirect elevation of dopamine

-opioid MOA

42

-poor oral hygiene, dry mouth, increased caries
-increased risk of mucosla infections and perio disease

-opioids and dds

43

2 examples of barbs

-phenobarbital
-pentobarbital

44

used for sedation, anticonvulsant, insomnia and anxiety

barbs and benzos

45

-sedation, decreased anxiety, slurred speech, confusion, impaired coordination, memory impairment, euphoria, excitement, fever

barbs; cns depressants

46

-sedation, decreased anxiety, slurred speech, confusion, impaired coordination, memory impairment

benzos; cns depressants

47

-anxiety, sweating, n+v, insomnia, weakness, tremors, seizures, hallucinations, psychosis, can be fatal

withdrawal from benzos/barbs

48

-exert primary effects through positive allosteric modulation of GABA receptors; increased effects at GABA receptors, increased neural inhibition

benzo/barb MOA

49

inhibit glutamate; decreased excitatory neurotransmission

secondary effects of MOA of benzos/barbs

50

ketamine, PCP, salvia divinorum, dextromethorpham (DXM)

dissociative drugs

51

-feeling of separation from one's body and environment, impaired motor function, anxiety, tremors, numbness, memory loss, nausea

dissociative drug effects

52

associated w/analgesia

-ketamine and PCP

53

associated w/psychosis

-PCP

54

may include anhedonia and depression

withdrawal from PCP

55

antagonize NMDA receptors, disrupt glutamate (most common excitatory NT) function

-MOA of PCP, ketamine and DXM

56

activates kappa opioid receptors

-MOA of salvia

57

LSD, psilocybin, mescaline (peyote)

hallucinogens

58

-hallucinations, altered states of perception and feeling, nausea

hallucinogen effects

59

2 drugs associated with increased temperature and loss of appetite

-LSD
-mescaline

60

associated with paranoia and/or panic

psilocybin

61

antagonize 5HT-2A receptors

hallucinogen MOA