Flashcards in Drugs Of Abuse Part 1 Deck (20):
Why do people abuse drugs.
To alter consciousness, to feel euphoria and to relieve pain.
Name the 4 Drug Types.
CNS Stimulants, CNS Depressants, Opioids, Hallucinogens
Outline Drug Tolerance
Characterised by a decreased effectiveness of the drug, subsequently greater doses are required to achieve the same effect.
Describe Pharmacokinetic Tolerance
Increased rate of Metabolism
Describe the characteristics of Pharmacodynamic Tolerance
Downregulation of receptors.
Increase in presynaptic Ca++ channels.
Increase in second messengers.
Depletion of transmitter.
Synthesis of endogenous inverse agonist.
Describe Drug Dependence
Compulsion to self administration of Drug, addiction.
The Reward- Effect pathway found in Nucleus Accumbens of Mesolimbic system.
Name and describe the sub types of Drug Dependence
.Psychological dependence - Complusion to take the drug to experience the psychological effect, but no medical reason.
Physical dependence - withdrawal symptoms with adverse changes, take the drug to avoid discomfort.
Name 4 Drugs that have an effect of CNS Stimulation.
By which Brain Pathways do Amphetmines work as a CNS Stimulant?
Dopamine and Noradrenaline Release.
What is the drug effect of Amphetamines, including Peripheral effects.
Increased energy and feelings of wellbeing.
Enhanced Physical Performance
Peripheral Effects - Tachycardia, Hypertension.
What is the dependence level and withdrawal symptoms of Amphetamine use including treatment?
Dependency Level High
Withdrawal - Prolonged sleep, Anxiety , Tachycardia, Depression.
Treastment - Fluoxetine
How does cocaine produce its effects and what are the effects of Cocaine?
Inhibition of Amine Uptake.
Increased Energy and overwhelming sense of Euphoria.
Effects shorter lasting but more intense than those of Amphetamines.
What is the dependency level and withdrawal symptoms of Cocaine use including Treatment.
Dependency very High.
Withdrawal - Depresion, Prolonged Sleep, Cocaine craving.
Treatment - Fluoxetine, Bromocriptine.
What are the Peripheral Effects of Nicotine?
Tachycardia, Hypertension, reduction in gut motility and sweating.
What receptors does Nicotine act upon and what are the effects?
Stimulates Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptors.
Has a complex mixture of Excittory and inhibitoory effects.
Increases concentration and alertness.
Calms down Tenseness.
By what mechanism does Nicotine decrease skeletal muscle tone?
Stimulation of Spinal Renshaw Cells.
Describe the dependency level, withdrawal symptoms and treatment for Nicotine.
Dependency - Very High
Withdrawal - Irritability and aggression.
Treatment - NRT Nicotine Replacement Therapy, Counselling, Fluoxetine.
By what mechanism does caffeine have its effects?
Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase (stops the catabolism of cAMP) , increased intracellular cAMP. Alters disposition of intracellular calcium.
Antagonist of adenosine receptors.
What are the effects of Caffeine?
Reduction of Fatigue.
Relaxation of smooth muscle.