Drugs of Dependence Flashcards Preview

Hugh's MD1 Neuro > Drugs of Dependence > Flashcards

Flashcards in Drugs of Dependence Deck (28):
1

What are the effect of THC on consciousness?

Sharpened sensory awareness 

Increased intensity of sights and sounds

Relaxation

2

In which age group are selective serotonin reuptake inhbitors contraindicated?

Adolescents due to anxiety and sucidal tendencies

3

Why is there potential for degeneration 5-HT and DA neurons with MDMA use?

Toxic metabolites are produced in its metabolism

 

3

Is dependence or tolerance a big issue with LSD use?

Tolerance

5

What physiological effect do all drugs with the potential for abusive share?

Increasing dopamine in the nucleus accumbens

6

What are two characteristics of drugs that lead to their abuse?

The rewarding effect of a psychoactive drug

- Positive reinforcement

 

Habituation

- Relying on a drug to feel well or to avoid abstinence syndrome

6

What are some central effects of THC?

Impaired short term memory

Impair motor coordination

Catalepsy

Analgesia

Anti-emetic

6

What were the limitations of the tricyclic antidepressants?

Poor selectivity

Narrow therapeutic window

Long half-live > accumulation possible

Takes weeks for the psychological effect to manifest while the side effects were already present

8

What aspect of the effect of amphetamine predisposes for dependence to occur?

Dopaminergic actions in the nuclear accumbens

8

What is an important advantage of using SSRIs?

No dopamine effect therefore dependence

9

How does death result from an overdose of amphetamine?

Due to the peripheral effects

- Hyperthermia, tachycardia, increased BP, vascular collapse

10

What is the physiological effect of caffeine?

Adenosine antagonist

Phosphodiesterase inhibitor

11

What causes the increased physical activity with methamphetamines use?

NA released in the periphery

13

What type of people are most likely to become dependent on amphetamine?

People with a lower mood baseline - eg depressed or lonely people

14

What is the cellular mechanism of action of THC?

Act on cannabinoid receptors > G protein coupled receptors > inhibition of adenylate cyclase > Inhibition of transmission

15

What is the effect of LSD on consciousness?

It confuses the senses > leads to hallucinations (visual, auditory and tactile)

16

What is the difference between drug dependence and drug abuse?

Dependence is the state where drug use becomes compulsive taking precedence over other needs 

While abuse is characterised by recurrent and clinically significant adverse consequences

16

What are the key transmitters that modulate dopaminergic transmission?

ACh, serotonin, NA, GABA, glutamate and opioids

17

What is the mechanism of action of tricycle antidepressants?

Inhibit neuronal uptake of NA and serotonin

18

What is serotonin syndrome?

Hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, cardiovascular collapse when Selective serotonin reuptake inhibits are combined with MAOI and Tricyclic 

20

Which causes more NA release, amphetamine or MDMA?

Amphetamine

21

What were the 1st generation antidepressants?

Tricyclic 

Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors

22

What is the physiological effect of MAOI?

Increase levels of 5HT, NA and DA

23

What are the physiological effects of ethanol?

Inhibit Ca++ channel opening

Enhance GABA action

Inhibit glutamate receptors

25

With which antidepressant do you get the cheese reaction?

MAOI reacts poorly with foods that are high in tyramine

26

Why do you get tolerance to ethanol?

Induction of liver enzymes to increase its metabolism

27

What is the major physiological effect of MDMA?

Release of dopamine and serotonin

28

What are the name of some SSRI?

Fluoxetine

Paroxetine

Sertraline

Venlaflaxine