What are the effect of THC on consciousness?
Sharpened sensory awareness
Increased intensity of sights and sounds
In which age group are selective serotonin reuptake inhbitors contraindicated?
Adolescents due to anxiety and sucidal tendencies
Why is there potential for degeneration 5-HT and DA neurons with MDMA use?
Toxic metabolites are produced in its metabolism
Is dependence or tolerance a big issue with LSD use?
What physiological effect do all drugs with the potential for abusive share?
Increasing dopamine in the nucleus accumbens
What are two characteristics of drugs that lead to their abuse?
The rewarding effect of a psychoactive drug
- Positive reinforcement
- Relying on a drug to feel well or to avoid abstinence syndrome
What are some central effects of THC?
Impaired short term memory
Impair motor coordination
What were the limitations of the tricyclic antidepressants?
Narrow therapeutic window
Long half-live > accumulation possible
Takes weeks for the psychological effect to manifest while the side effects were already present
What aspect of the effect of amphetamine predisposes for dependence to occur?
Dopaminergic actions in the nuclear accumbens
What is an important advantage of using SSRIs?
No dopamine effect therefore dependence
How does death result from an overdose of amphetamine?
Due to the peripheral effects
- Hyperthermia, tachycardia, increased BP, vascular collapse
What is the physiological effect of caffeine?
What causes the increased physical activity with methamphetamines use?
NA released in the periphery
What type of people are most likely to become dependent on amphetamine?
People with a lower mood baseline - eg depressed or lonely people
What is the cellular mechanism of action of THC?
Act on cannabinoid receptors > G protein coupled receptors > inhibition of adenylate cyclase > Inhibition of transmission
What is the effect of LSD on consciousness?
It confuses the senses > leads to hallucinations (visual, auditory and tactile)
What is the difference between drug dependence and drug abuse?
Dependence is the state where drug use becomes compulsive taking precedence over other needs
While abuse is characterised by recurrent and clinically significant adverse consequences
What are the key transmitters that modulate dopaminergic transmission?
ACh, serotonin, NA, GABA, glutamate and opioids
What is the mechanism of action of tricycle antidepressants?
Inhibit neuronal uptake of NA and serotonin
What is serotonin syndrome?
Hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, cardiovascular collapse when Selective serotonin reuptake inhibits are combined with MAOI and Tricyclic
Which causes more NA release, amphetamine or MDMA?
What were the 1st generation antidepressants?
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors
What is the physiological effect of MAOI?
Increase levels of 5HT, NA and DA
What are the physiological effects of ethanol?
Inhibit Ca++ channel opening
Enhance GABA action
Inhibit glutamate receptors
With which antidepressant do you get the cheese reaction?
MAOI reacts poorly with foods that are high in tyramine
Why do you get tolerance to ethanol?
Induction of liver enzymes to increase its metabolism
What is the major physiological effect of MDMA?
Release of dopamine and serotonin
What are the name of some SSRI?