DSA - Biomolecules Flashcards Preview

MCM > DSA - Biomolecules > Flashcards

Flashcards in DSA - Biomolecules Deck (14):
1

Starch

Polysaccharide of Glucose

2

Sucrose

Disaccharide of glucose and fructose

3

Lactose

Disaccharide of glucose and galactose

4

Lactose Intolerance

:the body’s inability to easily digest Lactose due to genetic deficiency of lactase, with an age-dependent decrease in production of the enzyme (infant possess sufficient quantities). Results in gas, belly pain, and bloating within 2 hours of consuming lactose.

5

Blood glucose

Regulated by insulin and glucagon
• Normal: 70-100 mg/dL (fasting), ≤ 140 mg/dL (fed)
• Hypoglycemia: ≤ 60 mg/dL (hunger, sweating, trembling)
• Diabetes mellitus: ≥ 126 mg/dL (fasting), ≥199 mg/dL (fed)
• ≤ 40 mg/dL: convulsions, coma, brain damage, death

6

Glycolysis

the metabolism of glucose
• Process by which most cells generate energy (2 molecules
of ATP formed) • Break 6 C’s of glucose to 2x 3 C’s of pyruvate; energy
production continues in mitochondria with O2 • Aerobic conditions → suppress glycolysis (except cancers) • Used to help screen for cancers via PET scans

7

Sugar alcohols

food additives, significance in uncontrolled diabetes
(cataracts and peripheral neuropathy)

8

Bond between carbohydrates

Glycosidic linkage

9

Linkage between Amylose

a(1-4)

10

Linkage between Amylopectin

a(1-4) and a(1-6)

11

Lipid Soluble Vitamins

Vitamin DAKE

12

ω-3 ω-6 fatty acids (pg. 31)

essential fatty acids
• “3” and “6” denote carbon location of terminal double bond • Linolenic acid is a common ω-3 fatty acids • Linoleic and Arachidonic acids are common ω-6 fatty acids

13

Isoprenoids

Synthesized from acetyl CoA via intermediate IPP (isopentenyl
pyrophosphate).

14

Gallstones

The gallbladder stores lipid- emulsifying bile. Nonideal bile composition including too much cholesterol and too little bile salts cause formation of crystalline gallstones in the gall bladder. Continued disturbances in metabolism can lead to malabsorption (steatorrhea) and fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies. Oral chenodeoxycholic acid can help dissolve gallstones.