Dudes and Their Theories, Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Dudes and Their Theories, Part 2 Deck (45):
1

Corballis (2003), Pinker (1994)

Language as an adaptation for survival.
Ability to strategize, collectively think, problem solving, pass on knowledge.
Cost: crowded teeth, wisdom teeth, choking

2

Chomsky

LAD: Language Acquisition Device
Linguistic nativism: hard wired set of rules for acquiring grammar, allows children to learn language with efficiency

3

Austin

Speech act theory: All language is performative, allows people to perform/ achieve action. Three characteristics of utterances: locution, illocution, perlocution

4

Searle

Argued it is sufficient to use indirect language to convey meaning.

5

Grice

Theory of conversational implicature: speakers are cooperative when they talk, communication means more than they say, mutually adhere to cooperative principle.
Four maxims of communication:
Quantity
Quality
Relation
Manner

6

Brown & Levinson

Politeness strategies: theory of politeness phenomena, what is said and what is implied is based on politeness, and saving face.
Positive face: be liked
Negative face: Be left alone

7

Whorf

Language determines thoughts, people who speak different languages see the world in different ways.

8

Bond

Cultural frame switching: values and personalities shift based on which language is used

9

Ng

Masculine generic language, lens-like power of langage

10

Echterhoff, Higgins

Saying is believing

11

Giles

Speakers who deviate from received pronunciation are deemed lower class

12

Giles & Smith

Speech accommodation theory: Speech style adapts to each conversation. Renamed communication accommodation to include non-verbal behaviours

13

Atkinson, Kilby & Roca

Pragmatics
“The distinction between what a speaker’s words (literally) mean and what the speaker might mean by his words

14

Krauss & Chiu

Language permits us to communicate more easily about aspects of our environment that are important, but does not determine thought

Inferring personality from speech

15

Scherer

Perceived dynamism, extraversion – associated with high variability in ‘fundamental frequency’ (i.e., vocal pitch)
perceived competence – linear relationship with speech rate

16

Lakoff

Social pitch as indicator of social status. Women's higher register. Even higher in cultures where women have less status roles, observed change as cultures change (ex. Japan)

17

De Paulo and Friedman

Non verbal communication, dynamic, mostly face-to-face exchange of information through cues other than words

18

Argyle and Dean

People reach an equilibrium and maintain it by responding in compensatory ways to any changes in their partner’s behaviour

19

Baumeister & Leary

Fundamental need to afilliate

20

Hatfield

Rated personality on attractiveness cues

Equity theory

Companionate love

21

Little & Perrett

Similarity principle

22

Festinger

Propinquity effect

23

Zajonc

Mere exposure effect

24

Dutton and Aron

Excitation transfer

25

Heider

Balance theory

26

Thibaut & Kelley

Social exchange theory

27

Byrne & Clore

Reinforcement effect model

28

Aron

Bio aspect of love: Dopamine reward etc

29

Sternberg

Triangular theory of love

30

John Lee/ Hendrick and Hendrick

6 styles of love

31

Gupta & Singh

Arranged marriage effect

32

Harlow, Bowlby, Ainsworth

Attachment theory
H: Attachment as priority
B: Attachment as bio need, survival adaptation
A: Defined attachment styles based on Strange Situation

33

Rusbult

Investment model of commitment

34

Yale approch

Theory that persuasion is based on source, message and target

35

Chaiken

Likability, credibility effect

Evaluative advertising

Heuristic-Systemic model

36

Haslam

Attractiveness effect

37

Miller

Speech rate, faster = more trustworthy

38

Aronson/ McGuire

Fear arousal/ Bell curve of effect: attitude innoculation

39

Worchel

Scarcity technique

40

Cacioppo

Factual advertising

Personality, need for cgnition

ELM

41

Asch

Primacy effect

42

Eagly

Gender effect, women more socially cooperative

Counter arguing against attitude incongruities

43

Krosnick

Age effects, and resistance based on experience

44

Bodenhausen

Mood effect

45

Martin

Selective avoidance (confirmation bias)