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Flashcards in DVT & PE Deck (15)
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1

What are the three components of Virchow's triad?

Circulatory stasis
Hypercoagulability
Endothelial injury

2

Why is D-dimer not a diagnostic test for DVT/PE?

It is raised in other pathologies - infection, MI, surgery, liver disease, pregnancy

3

What are some of the signs/symptoms of DVT?

Calf/leg pain
Swelling
Redness
Hot/inflamed
Localised pain over deep vessels

4

What investigations should be done for DVT?

D-dimer
Duplex scanning ultrasound

5

What is Venous Plethysomography?

A method used for measuring changes in volume in an extremity e.g. the leg

6

What is the immediate treatment of DVT?

Anti-coagulation with LMWH & warfarin

7

What is the long term treatment for DVT?

Compression stockings
TEDs for 6 weeks

8

What is Phlegmasia Dolens?

A severe form of DVT causing obstruction of arterial inflow threatening the life of the limb

9

What is the treatment for phlegmasia dolens?

IVC filter
Femoral arterial line
tPA intra-arterially
Surgical review
Decompression
Amputation

10

What are the four classifications of PE?

Massive - with shock or syncope
Major with right-ventricular dysfunction
Major with normal right-ventricular function
Minor

11

What are some of the symptoms of PE?

SOB
Collapse
Pleuritic Chest Pain
Haemoptysis
Sudden death

12

What are some of the signs of PE?

Tachypnoea, hypotension, cardiorespiratory arrest
Wheeze
Tachycardia
Fourth heart sound
Pleural Rub
Oligemia on CXR (segmental loss of pulmonary vasculature)
Signs of Pleural effusion
Consolidation on CXR

13

What investigations should be done if a diagnosis of PE is suspected?

Arterial blood gases
CXR
V/Q Scan
CTPA
Echocardiogram
Angiography- rarely done
ECG- S1Q3T3 only seen in 20%

14

What is the first line treatment in PE?

Anticoagulation with LMWH

15

When should thrombolysis of PE be considered?

Major PE