Dysarthria - Systems Flashcards Preview

HESP406 > Dysarthria - Systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Dysarthria - Systems Deck (13):
1

What is the definition of dysarthria?

A Collective Name for a group of neurologic speech disorders resulting from abnormalities in the strength, Speed, range, steadiness, tone or accuracy of movements required for the control of the respiratory, phonatory, resonatory, Articulatory, and prosodic aspects of speech production.

 

2

What causes dysarthria (3)?


•Damage to Upper Motor Neurons
•Damage to Lower Motor Neurons
•Damage to subcortical structures (Indirect activation system)

3

What are some etiologies of dysarthria?


•Stroke
•TBI
•Tumors
•Surgery
•Bell’s Palsy
•Degenerative conditions (ALS, Huntington’s)
•Medications
•Multiple Sclerosis
•Cerebral Palsy

 

4

What are the 5 speech systems?


•Respiratory System
•Phonation
•Articulation
•Resonance
•Prosody
 

5

Describe the respiratory system. What is it in the speech system? What does it consist of? What is it important for creating and controlling?


•“the Power” of the speech system
•Muscle groups
•Intercostals
•Diaphram
•Accessory Muscles? (shoulder?)
•Important for creating and controlling subglottic pressure
 

6

Describe the dysarthric respiratory system. What is insufficient? What can this cause? What happens with regulation of breath? What can this cause? What may they need to take?

 

  • •Insufficient Breath Support
    • •Weak voicing/ decreased vocal volume
    • •Decreased phrase length
  • •Poor regulation of breath
    • •Too much/too little force of air
    • •Poor coordination of Inhale/Exhale for speech
  • •Short phrase length
    • •Inappropriate Pauses to breath  
       

7

Describe the phonation system. How is pitch changed? What makes low/high pitch? What kind o fmechanism is it? What is it influenced by (2)?

  • A highly complex process
  • Larynx Raises and lowers to change pitch
  • Vocal folds vibrate within the larynx
    • •Stretch and thin out to make higher pitches
    • •Shorten and thicken to make lower pitches
  • Valving mechanism - control of air
  • influenced by factors above and below the level of the vocal folds
    • Flow and pressure of air from lungs
    • Flow and pressure of air in the resonators, articulators

8

Describe the dysarthric phonation system. What do they have a limited ablity to do? What does this result in? What may happen with vocal fold adduction (2)? What may result in each? 

 

  • Limited ability to modify pitch
    • “Monotone” or Monopitch
  • Insufficient Vocal Fold Adduction
    • Breathy vocal quality
    • Shortened phrase length
    • Decreased vocal volume
  • Too much Vocal Fold adduction
    • Harsh vocal quality 

9

Describe the resonators. What do they refer to? What does it require?


•Can refer to the entire space above the vocal Folds
•More often refers to differentiation between oral and Nasal Sounds
•Requires strength and precise coordination of the velum
 

10

Descibe dysarthric resonance. What are three things that can happen? Describe each

 

  • •Hypernasality
    • •Oral sounds resonate through nasal cavity
  • •HyponasalitY
    • •Nasal sounds do not resonate through nasal cavity
  • •Mixed Nasality
    • •Inconsistent/inaccurate nasality
    • •Often poor timing of velum
       

11

Describe the articulators. What are they and what do they do? What is required for precise articulation?

 

  • Articulators (Lips, Tongue, jaw, etc.) shape airstream as it passes through the oral cavity.
  • Highly coordinated and complex movements are required.
  • Precise articulation requires exact:
    • Timing
    • Direction
    • Force
    • Speed
    • placement 
       

12

Describe articulation with dysarthria


•Imprecise consonants
•Vowel distortions/errors
 

13

Describe prosody. What is it? How does it vary? What is it used to convey? WHat does it require coordination of? How can dyarthria impact prosody?

 

  • •“Melody” of Speech
  • •Varies by language, Region and culture
  • •Used to convey Meaning and emotion
  • •Requires the coordination of all speech systems:
    • •Respiratory
    • •Phonatory
    • •Articulatory
    • •Resonance
  • •Dysarthria can impact prosody in multiple ways