Dyslipidemias: Clinical Features and Evaluation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Dyslipidemias: Clinical Features and Evaluation Deck (17):
1

How is LDL calculated?

LDL = total cholesterol – (HDL + triglycerides/5)

The three values on the right side of the equation are measured directly, and VLDL = triglycerides/5.

2

The average level of LDL in America is _________.

116

3

Use of statins and the subsequent lowering of LDL has been shown to ________________.

stabilize atherosclerotic plaques and prevent CVD incidents

4

True or false: elevated cholesterol is a requirement for development of atherosclerotic plaques.

False.

5

Familial hypercholesterolemia most often results from ____________.

defects in the LDL receptor

6

PCSK9 binds to _____________ and leads to its degradation.

the LDL receptor

7

What is arcus cornealis?

Lipid deposits at the limbis of the cornea due to hypercholesterolemia; can be seen in African Americans without hypercholesterolemia

8

Tendinous xanthomas can present as _______________.

bumps or thickened tendons

9

There isn't good enough data to support that having _____________ or ____________ raise CVD risk.

high triglycerides; low HDL

10

Increased LDL production can result from _____________.

insulin resistance, because the excess insulin stimulates lipogenesis, causing VLDLs to increase (and thus LDLs to increase downstream)

11

Severe hypertriglyceridemia results from ________________.

defects in lipoprotein lipase and/or overproduction of VLDL

12

What eight factors go into computing ASCVD risk?

Age (older +)
Gender (men +)
Hypertension
Diabetes
LDL
Total cholesterol
Cigarette smoking

13

PCSK inhibitors have been theorized to __________.

decrease LDL levels by inhibiting degradation

14

PCSK gain-of-function mutations have been shown to _____________.

increase serum LDL levels

15

The two most research-supported genes implicated in hypertriglyceridemia are ___________.

LPL and apoprotein a5

16

The primary goal in severe hypertriglyceridemia is ____________.

to prevent pancreatitis

17

Dysbetalipoproteinemia results from __________ and leads to ______________.

apoE2 phenotype (when the normal is E3 or E4); high triglycerides and low HDL

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