E5 Ch. 25 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in E5 Ch. 25 Deck (122):
1

what are the primary sex organs

testes and ovaries

2

name the accessory sex organs

glands and external genitalia

3

where are the testes located

w/in the scrotum

4

what is the scrotum

skin and superficial fascia surrounding testes, positioning provides an environment 3 degrees cooler than body temp

5

what is the dartos muscle and function

layer of smooth muscle responsible for wrinkling scrotal skin

6

what is the cremaster muscle and function

band of skeletal muscle surrounding testes that elevates them

7

tunica vaginalis

serous sac enclosing testes

8

tunica albuginea

fibrous capsule of testes; divides each into 250-300 lobules

9

epididymis

comma-shaped structure on posterior testis

10

pampiniform plexus and function

where testicular veins arise from; helps keep testes cool

11

what part of the NS innervates the testes

parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions of the ANS

12

what separates the seminiferous tubules

separated by areolar CT

13

what are spermatogenic cells

sperm-forming cells

14

what are columnar sustentocytes

support cells

15

what do spermatogenic cells produce

sperm

16

about how much sperm is formed per day

~400 million

17

what part of life does sperm production being

at puberty; takes 75 days

18

what is the process of sperm formation

cells differentiate and move toward lumen
spermatogonia (stem cells)- secondary spermatocytes- spermatids-sperm

19

what do sustentocytes do

surround spermatogenic cells, assist sperm production, and secrete testicular fluid and androgen-binding protein

20

what are myoid cells

surround seminiferous tubules and contract rhythmically

21

what do interstitial endocrine cells secrete in males and what is it regulated by

testosterone; secretion regulated by LH

22

when uncoiled how long is the duct of the epididymis

6 m long

23

what type of tissue line s the epididymis

dominated by pseudostratified columnar epithelium, bears tufts of sterocilia- immotile, long microvilli

24

where do sperm gain the ability to swim and fertilize an egg though

though the acrosomal reaction

25

function of the ductus deferens

stores and transports sperm

26

describe the histology of the ductus deferens

epithelium= pseudostratified columnar, thick muscularis, and adventitia

27

list the structures found in the spermatic cord

ductus deferens, testicular blood vessels, and nerves

28

where does the superior portion of ductus deferens run though

inguinal canal

29

list the parts of the male urethra

prostatic, imtermediate (membranous), and spongy urethra

30

where are the seminal glands located

lie on posterior surface of the urinary bladder

31

what does the fluid secreted by seminal glands contain

frutose, substance to enhance sperm motility, prostaglandins, substances that suppress immune response against semen, and enzymes that clot and then liquefy semen

32

what percentage do seminal gland secretions contribute to the volume of semen

60%

33

describe the prostate

encircles prostatic urethra, consist of 20-30 compound tubuloalveolar glands, secretes about 25-30% of seminal flud

34

what substances does the prostate contain

substances tha enhance sperm motility, and enzymes that clot and then liquefy semen

35

where is the bulbo-urethral glands

pea-sized glands inferior to prostate glands

36

function of bulbo-urethral glands

produce mucus which enters spongy urethra prior to ejaculation neutralizing traces of acidic urine and lubricates urethra

37

what is the shaft

body of penis

38

glans penis

distal expanded end

39

what is prepuce

foreskin; removed during circumcision

40

what are the erectile bodies of the penis

one corpus spongiosum (surrounding spongy urethra), and 2 corpora cavernosa (contains sinuses; make up most of penis)

41

what parts of the NS controls erection and ejaculation

erection- parasympathetic
ejaculation- sympathetic

42

what structures does the male perineum contain

scrotum, root of penis, and anus

43

what is the male perineum

diamond-shaped area b/t pubic symphysis anteriorly, coccyx posteriorly, and ischial tuberosities laterally

44

briefly describe stages of spermatogensis

stage 1- spermatogonia divide by mitosis
stage 2- meiosis I and meiosis II
stage 3- spermiogenesis

45

what happens in stage 1 of spermatogenesis

type A- maintain germ cells
type B- differentiate into primary spermatocytes

46

what happens in stage 2 of spermatogenesis

meiosis I- forms 2 secondary spermatocytes
meiosis II- each spermatocyte forms 2 spermatids

47

what happens in stage 3 of spermatogenesis

the 4 spermatids differentiate into spermatozoa, which shed superfluous cytoplasm cutting down to the bare minimum of a head, midpiece, and tail

48

what surrounds spermatogenic cells and what are they bound by

sustentocytes surround, bounded by tight junctions

49

function of tight junctions b/t sustentocytes

blood testis barrier; protects developing sperm from immune system

50

what hormones control spermatogenesis

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone

51

what do secretions from sustentocytes also influence, list them

spermatogenesis; androgen-binding protein (concentrates testosterone near spermatogenic cells) and inhibin (inhibits FSH)

52

what is the menstrual cycle

the monthly cycle as it affects all female reproductive organs

53

list the structures that make up the female reproductive system

uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina

54

list the ligaments and mesenteries that hold the ovaries

broad ligament, suspensory ligament, and ovarian ligament

55

what part of the NS innervates the ovaries

both divisions of ANS

56

what is the tunica albuginea

fibrous capsule of the ovary; covered in simple columnar epithelium

57

ovarian cortex

houses developing oocytes

58

follicles

multicellular sacs housing tissue; contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves

59

list the different part of the uterine tubes

infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus

60

describe infundibulum

distal end of uterine tube, surrounded by fimbriae

61

describe the ampulla

middle third of uterine tube; usual site of fertilization

62

describe the isthmus

medial third of uterine tube

63

where is the uterus located

lies anterior to rectum- posterior to bladder, anteverted (anteflexed) usual position of uterus

64

what is the intern and external ox

internal- opening connecting w/ uterine cavity
external- inferior opening of cervix

65

name the structures that support the uterus

mesometrium, cardinal ligaments, and round ligaments

66

function of mesometrium

anchors uterus to lateral pelvic walls

67

function of cardinal ligaments

horizontal from cervix and vagina

68

function of round ligament

binds uterus to anterior pelvic wall

69

what are the two laters of the endometirum

functional and basal layer

70

function of uterine arteries

sends branches to the uterine wall and divide into arcuate arteries

71

what do the radial arteries branch into once it reaches the endometrium

straight arteries- to basal layer
spiral arteries- to functional layer

72

what is mainly responsible for the monthly menstrual cycle

due to hormonal fluctuations in ovaries and uterus

73

what does the ovarian cycle stimulate

stimulates production of ovarian follicles and oocytes

74

what does the uterine cycle prepare for

prepares uterine wall for implantation

75

what are the successive phases of the ovarian cycle

follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase

76

what happens during the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle

6-12 primodial follicles stimulated to develop, growth stimulated by FSH, becomes primary follicle, antrium forms, priamry follicles become secondary follicle enlarges and becomes vesicular (graafian) follicle ready to be ovulated

77

what is zona pellucida

glycoprotein coat surrounding oocyte

78

what is the theca folliculi

internal layer secretes hormones

79

what is an antrum

fluid-filled cavity b/t granulosa cells

80

what is the corona radiata

coat of granulosa cells surrounding oocyte

81

when does ovulation occur

halfway though each ovarian cycle (day 14)

82

what happens during the ovulation phase of the ovarian cycle

one mature oocyte exits from one ovary, enters peritoneal cavity (swept into uterine tube)

83

what hormone is a signal for ovulation

sudden increase LH

84

what happens during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle

occurs after ovulation, remaining follicle becomes corpus luteum (secretes progesteron to prep for implnatation of an embryo), if not implantation corpus luteum dies and becomes a corpus albicans

85

what is the uterine cycle

series of cyclic phases of the endometrium, coordinate w/ ovarian cycle, endometrial phases directed by FSH and LH

86

briefly describe the phases of the uterine cycle

menstrual phase (day 1-5)
proliferative phase (day 6-14)
secretory phase (day 15-28)

87

list the 3 coats of the vagina

adventitia (fibrous CT), muscularis (smooth muscle), and mucosa (marked by transverse folds)

88

what doe the mucosa coat of the vagina composed of

lamina propria and stratified squamous epi.

89

labia majora

homologue of he male scrotum, encloses the labia minora

90

what is the vestibule

space b/t labia minora, houses opening to urethra and vagina

91

what male structure is the clitoris homologous to

the penis

92

what structures make up the female perineum

anterior boundary- pubic arch, posterior boundary- coccyx, lateral boundaries- ischial tuberosities

93

what is the cortical reaction

enzymes prevent any other sperm from binding to egg

94

fertilization

chromosomes of male and female gametes join

95

describe the events leading to fertilization

sperm bind to zona pellucida, undergoes acrosomal reaction (release enzymes to form slit in zona pellucida), fusion of oocyte and sperm PM, chromosomes of male and female gametes join

96

when doe blastocyst beings implantation

about 6 days after conception

97

what doe blastocyst consists of

inner cells mass outer trophoblast,

98

what 2 layers do trophoblast form

cytotrophoblast- inner layer
syncytiotrophoblst- outer layer

99

what forms the placenta

embryonic and maternal tissues contribute to placenta

100

function of placenta

provide fetus w/ nutrients, oxygen, dispose of wastes, allow hormonal signals to be sent to mother

101

when is the placenta fully formed

by week 13

102

what substances diffuse from mother to fetus

sugars, fats, and oxygen

103

what substances diffuse from fetus to mother

urea and carbon dioxide

104

what do syncytiotrophoblast secrete

secretes substances that regulate events of pregnancy

105

what is parturition

266 days after fertilization

106

labor

events that expel infant from uterus

107

testicular cancer

affects 1 of 50,000 males, commonly from early-stage spermatogenic cells, 95% cured cases

108

where does prostate cancer arise from

peripheral glands

109

what are the risk factors of prostate cancer

fatty diet and genetic predisposition

110

where does ovarian cancer arise from

from cells in germinal epithelium

111

where does endometrial cancer arise from

endometrium of the uterus

112

describe cervical cancer

slow-growing, arises from epi at tip of cervix, often caused by human papillomavirus (HPV)

113

how is breast cancer treated

surgical removal (lumpectomy), radiation therapy, administration of selected hormones, and chemotherapy

114

when can you differentiate embryo sexes

5-6 weeks
males- week 7
females- week 8

115

mesonephric ducts

future male ducs

116

paramesonephric ducts

future female ducts

117

what structures does the mesonephric duct become

epididymis, ductus deferens, and ejaculatory duct

118

what structures does the paramesonephric duct become

uterus, uterine tubes, and superior part of vagina

119

what are some male secondary sex characteristics

enalrgemnt of scrotoum/testes, appearance of pubic, axillary, facial hair, lenthening of voal folds, musculoskeletal system increases mass, mature sperm in semen

120

what are some female secondary sex characteristics

budding breasts, and menarche (1st menstruation)

121

when does female reproductive peak

late 20s

122

when does ovulation and menstruation cease

age 46-54