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Flashcards in EAC Immobilisation and Support & equipment Deck (15):

principle purpose of splinting and immobilisation

Steady Limbs
Easing pain
Reducing risk of further damage


When to apply traction to a limb

Deformities would be aggravated by a long or rough journey

Circulation is impaired

Pressure is being applied to a nerve

Skin is stretched so tight there is possibility of an open fracture developing


Benefits of applying traction

Ease pain
Restore circulation
Prevent risk of damage to nerves and blood vessels
steady limb
Helps stem bleeding
Overcomes thigh muscle spasm


Principles of splinting:

Always assume a fracture

Treat fractures before moving

Support and immobilise affected part

Avoid direct pressure to fracture site

Check bandaging for tightness

Immobilise both sides of fracture, above and below site.

Pad rigid splints

Ensure pt comfort, raise fracture area (reduces swelling)

Remove jewellery before swelling occurs

ALWAYS check for nerve and circulation impairment above and below fracture.


Immobilisation and support:
Time Critical?

Before commencing immobilisation, the patient must be assessed as time critical or non-time critical

if time critical:
secure long bone fractures to an ortho/long board using straps.
If traction required apply splint rapidly or manual traction.
Load and go
Pre-alert to appropriate hospital


Immobilisation and support:

Not usually splinted
Dressing applied to stump
Remove gross contamination
Place part in sealed bag, put bag on ice
pre-alert to suitable hospital


Immobilisation and support:
Partial Amputation

Immobilise limb using splint or longboard
Normal anatomical alignment
Cover with dressings
pre-alert to suitable hospital


Immobilisation and support:
Non time critical Upper limbs

Patient self splinting
Fracture to clavicle and arms: triangular sling
Consider box and vacuum splints


Immobilisation and support:
Non time critical Lower limbs

Box splints fractured ankle, tibia and knee area
Traction splints, femoral shaft fracture
Vacuum splints for non correctable deformity


Routine Extraction

No immediate risk to life

If trapped consider HEMS/BASICS

Long Board

Pre-hospital alert


Urgent Extraction

A risk to life

Access may be limited

Use long board for smooth extrication through rear of vehicle if possible

Pre-alert hospital


Emergency Extraction

An immediate major risk to life E.G. vehicle fire, serious airway or breathing problem

Manual immobilisation
Turn the Pt
Extricate on spinal board through the side of the vehicle

Pre-alert hospital


Immobilisation and support equipment

Triangular bandages
Pelvic splint
Box splints
Vacuum splint
Traction splint
Universal Head Immobiliser
Frac' Straps
Orthopaedic stretcher


correcting deformities

Realign fracture into more normal alignment particularly:
If it is very severe
Evidence of restricted circulation

Consider Entonox
Be careful not to cause further damage


post immobilisation checks:

control of haemorrhage
Any paralysis or numbness
Skin colour, temp
Distal pulse
Tension of bandaging