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Flashcards in EAC Skeletal System Deck (40):
1

6 Functions of the Skeletal System

Support
Protect
Movement
Mineral Storage
Blood Cell Production
Storage of Energy

2

6 Functions of the Skeletal System:
Support

Provides support for the soft tissues of the body, giving the body shape, and providing a point of attachment for skeletal muscles

3

6 Functions of the Skeletal System:
Protect

The vital organs such as the brain and the heart are protected by the bones of the skeleton

4

6 Functions of the Skeletal System:
Movement

Movement is facilitated by the bones of the skeleton which serve as levers to which muscles are attached, and by the articulating joints between bones

5

6 Functions of the Skeletal System:
Mineral Storage

Calcium and Phosphorus are stored in bones and can be distributed to other parts of the body as the need arises

6

6 Functions of the Skeletal System:
Blood Cell Production

Red Marrow, contained within the Spongy Bone, produces red blood cells, some white blood cells and platelets.

7

6 Functions of the Skeletal System:
Storage of energy

Fat contained in yellow marrow provides an important source of energy for the body.

8

Describe:
Basic Anatomical Structure of a Bone

Made of two types of bone tissue, Compact Bone and Spongy Bone, covered by Periosteum. Where one bone forms a joint with another bone, a layer of Cartilage covers the articulating surface of the bone in place of the Periosteum.

9

define:
Compact Bone

dense tissue containing few spaces, which has a high stress bearing point

10

define:
Spongy Bone

Lighter bone tissue characterised by many spaces which contain red marrow

11

describe:
Periosteum

Dense fibrous membrane that covers bones.

Contributes to bone growth and repair and contains blood vessels which nourish the cells of the bone tissue.

Provides attachment for ligaments and tendons.

12

describe:
Cartilage

where bones meet to form joints a layer of cartilage covers the articulating surface.

The articulating cartilage reduces friction and acts as a shock absorber

13

5 Classifications of Bone

Long
Short
Flat
Irregular
Sesamoid

14

define:
Long Bone

Consist of an elongated shaft (Diaphysis) of compact bone

Two extremities (Epiphysis) composed mainly of spongy bone surrounded by a layer of compact bone.

Found in the limbs e.g. Humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, phalanges

15

define:
Short Bone

Consists of smaller masses of spongy bone surrounded by a layer of compact bone with no shaft.

They are generally cuboid in shape.

examples: carpus and tarsus

16

define:
Flat Bones

Consists of two layers of compact bone with a thin layer of spongy bone between.

They provide protection and extensive areas of muscle attachment.

Examples: Scapula, Pelvis, Cranium, Ribs.

17

define:
Irregular Bones

More complex in shape and therefore cannot be placed into other categories.

Similar to short bones in construction.

Examples: Vertebrae and several of the Facial Bones

18

define:
Sesamoid Bones

Small bones which are located in the tendons around certain joints.

The patella is the largest and most important

19

Cranial Bones
11.1 pg 3
pg 398 RW

Frontal
Parietal x2
Occipital
Temporal x2
Sphenoid
Ethmoid

20

Facial Bones
11.1 pg 3
pg 398 RW

Mandible
Maxilla x2
Zygoma x2
Nasal x2
Lacrimal x2
Palatine x2
Inferior nasal conchae x2
Vomer

21

Vertebral Column consists of:

7 Cervical
12 Thoracic
5 Lumbar
5 Sacral - fused to form the Sacrum
4 Coccygeal - fused to form the coccyx
TOTAL 33 bones

22

Purpose of:
Thoracic Cage

Contains and protects the heart and lungs

Concerned with the mechanism of respiration

23

component bones of the Thoracic Cage

Sternum
12 pairs of ribs
Thoracic vertebrae

24

types of Rib

True Ribs: upper 7 pairs. attached anteriorly to sternum

False Ribs: next 3 pairs. attached anteriorly to the rib above

Floating Ribs: 2 pairs. not attached anteriorly.

25

describe:
Axial Skeleton

Follows the line of the axis of the body and includes: Skull, Spinal Column, thoracic cage

26

describe:
Appendicular Skeleton

Made up of the bones in the upper and lower limbs and the pelvis. All of which are attached or appended to the axial skeleton.

27

The Appendicular Skeleton:
Upper Limbs

Shoulder Blades and Collar Bones form the Shoulder Girdle, which attaches upper limbs to the thoracic cage.

bones of the upper limb: Humerus, Radius, Ulna, Carpals, Metacarpals, Phalanges

28

The Appendicular Skeleton:
Lower Limbs

Are attached to the Pelvic Girdle

the bones of the lower limb: Femur, Patella, Tibia, Fibula, Tarsals, Metatarsals, Phalanges

29

Types of Joint

Immovable/Fibrous Joints
Slightly Moveable/Cartilaginous Joints
Freely Movable/Synovial Joints

30

Types of Joint:
Immovable/Fibrous Joints

Bones of the skull
pelvis

31

Types of Joint:
Slightly Moveable/Cartilaginous Joints

Symphysis pubis
Inter Vertebral

32

Types of Joint:
Freely Moveable/Synovial Joints

Elbow
Hip, Knee

33

types of Synovial Joints

Ball and socket Joints

Hinge Joint

Gliding Joint

Pivot Joint

34

Describe and give examples of:
Ball and Socket Joints

Bones can move freely in all directions

Hip
Shoulder

35

Describe and give examples of:
Hinge Joint

Allows flexion and extension in one direction only

Elbow
Knee

36

Describe and give examples of:
Gliding Joint

Where bones glide on one another

Wrist
Ankle

37

Describe and give examples of:
Pivot Joint

A joint which allows for rotation

Radius
Ulna

38

Function of:
Ligaments

They attach bone to another bone at the site of a joint

composed of dense fibrous connective tissue

39

Function of:
Tendons

Composed of dense fibrous connective tissue, which is continuous with the fibrous sheath covering each muscle. Attaches the periosteum of a bone, another muscle or the skin.

40

Function of:
Muscle

Muscle tissue is highly specialised to generate force.
4 basic characteristics of Muscle:

Excitability: receive and respond to stimuli

Contractility: shorten and thicken, or contract, to meet the requirements communicated by the reception of a sufficient stimulus

Extensibility: the ability to be stretched or extended

Elasticity: The ability to return to its original shape following contraction or extension