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Flashcards in Ear Conditions Deck (28):
1

Which organisms cause otitis externa?

Staphs and streps.
Pseudomonas

2

Ear pain followed by discharge is characteristic of otitis media or otitis externa?

Media

3

Ear discharge followed by pain is characteristic of otitis media or otitis externa?

Externa

4

What is 'glue ear'?

Otitis media with effusion

5

What is the common presentation of glue ear?

Hearing loss / speech delay in children (about age 3-5) usually noticed by parents

6

What is the treatment of persistent glue ear in children?

Grommets

7

What is a cholesteatoma and how is it caused?

Keratinised epithelium in the middle ear - it is caused by excessive retraction of the tympanic membrane, such that it becomes stuck and then grows, destroying the tissue around it.

8

How does a cholesteatoma present?

Persistent, smelly discharge
May be associated with hearing loss, pain, headaches

9

What is the treatment for cholesteatoma?

Mastoid surgery

10

What is thought to be the cause of glue ear?

Blockage of the Eustachian tube such that fluid accumulates in the middle ear

11

What is the inheritance pattern of otosclerosis?

Autosomal dominant

12

What is the treatment for excessive ear wax?

None if causing no problems - treat if obscuring tympanic membrane
Olive oil drops
Ear syringing
Microsuction

13

How might an acoustic neuroma present?

Unilateral tinnitus
Sensorineural deafness

14

How do you diagnose an acoustic neuroma?

MRI of cerebellar pontine angle

15

What is the treatment for acoustic neuroma?

May be nothing - just watch and wait
Surgical excision if necessary

16

How long does vertigo last in Meniere's disease?

Average = 12 hours, but might last about a day

17

How long does vertigo last in benign positional (postural) vertigo?

Typically seconds to minutes

18

Do you give all children with glue ear grommets?

No - The condition may be self-limiting. Consider grommets if hearing loss persistent for more than 3 months in at least 2 frequencies of sound

19

What is the presentation of Ramsay Hunt Syndrome?

Otalgia
VIIth nerve palsy
Sensorineural hearing loss
Zoster vesicles on the ear and in external auditory meatus
Vertigo

20

What is the treatment for Ramsay Hunt Syndrome?

Valaciclovir
Prednisolone

21

What is the eponymous name for herpes zoster oticus?

Ramsay Hunt Syndrome

22

What is the underlying pathology in otosclerosis?

Normal bone is replaced with spongy bone, especially around the oval window which fixes the stapes footplate

23

Which organisms typically cause acute otitis media?

S. pneumoniae
Haemophilus influenzar
Moraxella

24

Give one complication of acute otitis media to be aware of

Acute mastoiditis

25

What is a vestibular schwannoma?

Acoustic neuroma

26

In which condition are bilateral acoustic neuromas characteristic?

Neurofibromatosis type 2

27

What is a myringoplasty?

Surgical closure of a perforated eardrum

28

What is the management of acute mastoiditis?

Admission for IV antibiotics
Surgical drainage may be required