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Flashcards in Early Chinese History Deck (11)
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1

Zhou Dynasty

Zhōu 周 (ca. 1045/1046-256 BCE)

1. Western Zhou
* ca. 1045/1046-771 BCE
* capital: Hào 鎬 (near Xī'ān 西安)

2. Eastern Zhou
* ca. 771-256 BCE
* capital: Chéngzhōu 成周 (Luòyáng 洛陽)
a. Spring and Autumn Period 春秋
(771-476 BCE)
b. Warring States Period 戰國
(475-221 BCE)

2

Burning of the Books

fén shū kēng rú 焚書坑儒

* Qín Shǐ Huáng 秦始皇 extinguished the canonical texts of previous generations, burned the books and buried alive the rú 儒 (see 書序)
* 3rd century BCE
* not an attempt to destroy the scholarly traditions, since copies were preserved in the imperial collection
* purpose: to bring scholars under state control and to create a canon

3

Han Dynasty

Hàn 漢 Dynasty

1. Western Hàn 西漢
206 BCE-9 AD
capital Cháng'ān 長安

2. Xīn 新 Dynasty of Wáng Mǎng 王莽
9-23 AD

3. Eastern Hàn 東漢
25-220 AD
capital Luòyáng 洛陽

4

Pan Geng

Pán Gēng 盤庚

* Shāng 商 king
* 18th Shāng 商 king according to OBI unearthed at Yīnxū 殷墟
* 19th Shāng 商 king according to the Shǐjì 史記
* traditionally known for having moved the capital of the Shāng 商 to Yīn 殷

5

Last nine Shang kings

Last nine kings of the Shāng 商

21. Wǔ Dīng 武丁 (?-1189)
22. Zǔ Gēng 祖庚 (1188-1178)
23. Zǔ Jiǎ 祖甲 (1177-1158)
24. Lǐn Xīn 稟辛 (1157-1149)
25. Kāng Dīng 康丁 (1148-1132)
26. Wǔ Yǐ 武乙 (1131-1117)
27. Wén Wǔ Dīng 文武丁 (1116-1106)
28. Dì Yǐ 帝乙 (1105-1087)
29. Dì Xīn 帝辛 or Zhòu 紂 (1086-1045)

6

Shang Dynasty

Shāng 商 Dynasty

* ca. 1570-1045/1046 BCE
* first dynasty that left written sources (Ānyáng 安陽 OBI and bronze inscriptions)
* since written sources have been found only for the reigns of the last nine kings, true history only covers the period from Wǔ Dīng 武丁 to Dì Xīn 帝辛 (Zhòu 紂), which is the late Shāng 商 period

7

Yin

Yīn 殷

* name of the last Shāng 商 capital (Yīnxū 殷墟 "Ruins of Yīn" = Ānyáng 安陽)
* another name for the Shāng 商 Dynasty
* traditional view: the dynasty's name was Shāng 商 prior to Pán Gēng 盤庚 removed the capital to Yīn 殷
=> no evidence for this view (Keightley)
* Yīn 殷 seems to have been a Zhōu 周 term for the Dynasty which they had replaced
*

8

Battle of Muye

Mùyě zhī zhàn 牧野之戰 "Battle of Mùyě"

* battle fought in 1045/1046 BCE
* led to the end of the Shāng 商 dynasty and the beginning of the Zhōu 周 dynasty
* King Wǔ 武王 won the battle of Mùyě and became king of the Zhōu 周 dynasty

9

Gugong Danfu

Gǔgōng Dǎnfù 古公亶父

* also: King Tài of Zhōu 周太王
* legendary person credited with leasing the Zhōu people into a new land at the foot of Qíshān 岐山
* see song "Mián" 緜 in Dàyǎ 大雅 section of the Shījīng 詩經
* see also biography in the Shǐjì 史記

10

Ancestry of Zhou People

Legendary Ancestry of Zhōu 周 people

* Jiāng Yuán 姜嫄 is traditionally regarded as the ancestor of the Zhōu 周 people
* according to Shījīng 詩經 song "Shēng mín" 生民 she became pregnant by stepping into the footprint of Dì 帝, after which she gave birth to Hòujì 后稷, who founded the royal house of Zhōu 周
* there is no archaeological evidence for the place of origin of the Zhōu 周 people

11

Western Han Emperors

Western Hàn 西漢 Emperors
1. 高祖 Gāozǔ (劉邦 Liú Bāng)
r. 202-195 BCE
2. 惠帝 Huìdì (劉盈 Liú Yíng)
r. 195-188 BCE
3. 少帝 Shǎodì (劉恭 Liú Gōng)
r. 188-184 BCE
4. 少帝 Shǎodì (劉弘 Liú Hóng)
r. 184-180 BCE
5. 文帝 Wéndì (劉恆 Liú Héng)
r. 180-157 BCE
6. 景帝 Jǐngdì (劉啟 Liú Qǐ)
r. 157-141 BCE
7. 武帝 Wǔdì (劉徹 Liú Chè)
r. 141-87 BCE
8. 昭帝 Zhāodì (劉弗陵 Liú Fúlíng)
r. 87-74 BCE
9. 昌邑王 Chāngyì wáng (劉賀 Liú Hè)
r. 74 BCE
10. 宣帝 Xuāndì (劉病已 Liú Bìngyǐ)
r. 74-49 BCE
11. 元帝 Yuándì (劉奭 Liú Shì)
r. 49-33 BCE
12. 成帝Chéngdì (劉驁 Liú Ào)
r. 33-7 BCE
13. 哀帝 Āidì (劉欣 Liú Xīn)
r. 7-1 BCE
14. 平帝 Píngdì (劉衎 Liú Kàn)
r. 1 BCE-6 AD
15. 孺子 Rúzǐ (劉嬰 Liú Yīng)
r. 6-9 AD
(Wáng Mǎng 王莽)
16. 更始帝 Gèngshǐdì (劉玄 Liú Xuán)
r. 23-25 AD