Early Modern Britain (c.1500-c.1750) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Early Modern Britain (c.1500-c.1750) Deck (35):
1

what happened to England's population?

It doubled transforming towns and cities.Many people became attracted to big towns and cities which quickly expanded.

2

What happened to London's population?

It went from 70,000 in 1500-65,000 in 1750

3

what effect did the great fire of London, in 1666,have on the reconstruction of houses?

homes were rebuilt using brick and stone rather than material such as thatch. This reduced infestation and chance of fire.

4

When did Gutenberg invent the printing press

1440s

5

who proved the theory of the circulation of blood?

William Harvey

6

What effect did the printing press have on the medical profession?

thanks to the printing press, William Harvey's work on the circulation of blood was reprinted and shared across the medical profession in 1649

7

why weren't government priorities not focused on public health?

The government focused on funding wars

8

what were the features of a early modern town?

-Hygiene standards poor
-filthy
-Animals were common site
(germs had yet to be discovered)

9

what effect did the population increase have on the building of houses?

They were built quickly to cope with the population increase and as a result hygiene and safety was not part of the builders concern.

10

what were the three constant dangers in many city areas?

-Fire
-Disease
-Crime

11

When did the great plague hit?

1665

12

What percentage of London's population did the plague kill?

15%

13

what were the actions done aimed to protect the public against the plague outbreak

-Stray animals were removed from the street and killed to prevent further infections
-Course of the disease was mapped and widely spread
-House owners were ordered to collect there waste ready for collection by rakers

14

How does the great plague responses compare to the black death?

similar treatment and reaction to those in 1348.Still a lack of knowledge

15

How does the great plague responses differ to the black death

In 1665 there was more of a coordinated and organised response to the outbreak.

16

what effect did the lord mayor ordering a purge on animals have of the spread of plague?

It made the spread of plague worse by decreasing the number of predators that prayed on the flee carrying rat

17

What did Samuel Pepys do?

Recorded the impact of the great plague in London in his diary. He wrote.. ' how empty the streets are. And melancholy, so many poor sick people in the street, full of sores'

18

What measures did sir William Lawrence, mayor of London, take to contain the plague on the 1st of July?

1.people assigned in each parish to check each house to see if anyone was sick
2.if person was sick they were instructed to lock up the house for 40 days
3.the door were marked with a red cross and the writing lord have mercy on us
4.Watchmen would then stand outside the infected house to stop people going in and coming out

19

Between what hours could the body of someone who had died from plague be buried?

before sunrise or after sunset to reduce the chance of people coming into contact with the body.

20

How deep did the grave have to be?

6ft

21

who was banned from wondering the streets and entering the city?

beggars were banned from wondering the streets and no travelling entertainers were allowed into the city.

22

What were the unusual treatments used to try and treat the plague?

-Attaching the tail of a chicken to sores
-Bleed by leaches
-Live pigeons cut in half
-Breathing through soaked in vinegar
-Cleansing of the air by smoke and heat

23

What ended the great plague ?

The cold weather of the autumn and winter

24

Why was national government interference limited?

it was not seen as the work of the government to interfere in peoples lives.

25

When was the only time international orders were introduce in the early modern era?

the great plague outbreak of 1665.Even then they largely failed

26

What were the living conditions like for most workers?

often families were forced to live in one small cramped room. This room was damp and inadequate lacking sanitation.

27

By 1730 how many gin houses were opened in London

Over 6000

28

where could you enquire gin?

-grocery stores
-Barbers
-The market

29

What became a worrying feature of early modern life concerning gin.

The 'Gin craze'

30

what was the gin craze linked to?

An increase in crime ,violence and rapidly worsening the death rate.

31

what did the gin act in 1736 do?

forced sellers to purchase an annual licence at the cost of £50 a year. This was hoped to raise the price of gin and make it less accessible to sellers

32

why was the gin act of 1736 ineffective?

Illegal trade was established and reputable trader went bankrupt while bootleggers profited. They often sold dangerous and unpureed versions of gin

33

who was the artist who published the statistical cartoon called 'gin lane'?

William Hogarth

34

What did the gin act of 1751 do?

it reduced the cost of the licence fee and forced producers to sell at stores with a licence

35

Why was the gin act of 1751 effective?

As wages declined following poor harvests the gin craze came to an end. By 1757 it was simply too expensive for the poor.