Early physical, personality, and social development Flashcards Preview

HLSD > Early physical, personality, and social development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Early physical, personality, and social development Deck (49):
1

general risk factors affecting prenatal development?

-nutrition
-stress
-mother's age

2

how does nutrition affect prenatal development?

-inadequate maternal nutrition may result in premature birth and low birth weight
-lack of folic acid may increase risk of spina bifida

3

how does stress affect prenatal development?

-studies show extreme maternal stress is associated with low birth weight and premature births

4

how does mother's age affect prenatal development?

-older mothers are more likely to have difficulty getting pregnancy, miscarriages and stillbirths
-nearly 50% of pregnancies among women in their 40's and 50's result in miscarriages

5

what is a teratogen?

an agent that causes abnormal prenatal development

6

thalidomide?

sleeping tablet and powerful teratogen that led to thousands of babies with deformed limbs and digits in the late 1950's

7

what is babinski reflex?

-a baby's toes fan out when foot is stroked from head to toe
-perhaps a remnant of evolution

8

blink reflex?

-baby's eyes close in response to bright light or loud noise
-protects the eyes

9

moro reflex?

-a baby throws its arms out and then inward (as if embracing) in response to loud noise of when its head falls
-may help a baby cling to its mother

10

palmar?

-a baby grasps an object places in the palm of its hand?
-precursor to voluntary walking

11

rooting?

-when a baby's cheek is stroked, it turns its head toward the stroking and opens its mouth
-helps a baby find the nipple

12

stepping?

-a baby who is held upright by an adult and is then moved forward begins to step rhythmically?
-precursor to voluntary walking

13

sucking?

-a baby sucks when an object is placed in its mouth?
-permits feeding

14

withdrawal?

-a baby withdraws its foot when the sole is pricked with a pin?
-protects a baby from unpleasant stimulation

15

Apgar index?

-Appearance (skin tone)
-Pulse (heart rate)
-Grimace (reflexes)
-Activity (muscle tone)
-Respiration (breathing effort)

16

what is the apgar index scored from?

0 to 2

17

what are the different ratings for apgar?

-good physical condition (7+)
-needs special attention (4-6)
-life-threatening (total of 3 or less)

18

4 systems in neonatal behavioural assessment scale (NBAS)?

1. autonomic: body regulation (e.g. breathing)
2. motor: activity level and control of body
3. state: maintaining states (e.g. alertness)
4. social: interacting with people

19

the newborn's states?

-alert inactivity
-walking activity
-crying
-sleeping

20

what is alert inactivity?

-calm, still, eyes open, inspecting environment

21

what is walking activity?

-eyes open, but unfocussed, uncoordinated motion

22

basic cry?

starts softly and builds volume and intensity. often seen when the child is hungry or tired

23

mad cry?

more intense and louder

24

pain cry?

starts with a loud wail, followed by long pause then gasping

25

how much do newborns sleep?

16-18 hrs a day

26

newborn sleep cycle?

4 hour cycle 3 hours sleep and 1 hour awake

27

sleep cycle by 3 to 4 months?

5-6 hour cycle

28

sleep cycle by 6 months?

10-12 hours at night

29

temperament?

consistent cycles or patterns of infant behaviour?

30

rothbart's 3 dimensions indicate how much a child...?

-is generally happy, active, vocal, and seeks stimulation (surgency/extroversion)
-is angry, fearful, frustrates, shy, and not easily soothed (negative effect)
-focuses attention, is not easily distracted, and can inhibit impulses (effortful control)

31

when is growth more rapid?

in infancy than during any other period after birth

32

what happens to weight by 3 months?

infants double their weight

33

what happens to weight by 1 year?

infants triple their weight

34

what is dynamic systems theory?

the idea that motor development involves many distinct skills that are organised over time to meet demands of specific tasks

35

infants posture?

infants are top heavy and easily lose their balance

36

what is differentiation?

mastery of component skills

37

what is integration?

combining them in sequence to accomplish the task

38

what are infants fine motor skills like at 4 months?

clumsily reach for objects

39

what are infants fine motor skills like at 5 months?

co-ordinate movement of the 2 hands

40

what are infants fine motor skills like at 2-3 yrs?

children can use zipper's but not buttons

41

when do infants learn how to tie shoes?

around 6 years

42

what is preference affected by?

heredity but environment influence it too

43

what is perception?

brain processes receiving, selecting, modifying, and organising sensory inputs

44

newborns and odours?

they distinguish pleasant from unpleasant, or familiar from

45

newborns and taste?

they differentiate among salty, sour, bitter, sweet, and changes in mother's breast milk

46

how do we know infants are sensitive to sound?

startle reactions

47

when do infants distinguish between different pitches as well as adults?

6 months

48

when can infants use sound to locate direction and distance?

7 months

49

when is infant's colour perception same as adults?

3 months