Flashcards in Early physical, personality, and social development Deck (49):
general risk factors affecting prenatal development?
how does nutrition affect prenatal development?
-inadequate maternal nutrition may result in premature birth and low birth weight
-lack of folic acid may increase risk of spina bifida
how does stress affect prenatal development?
-studies show extreme maternal stress is associated with low birth weight and premature births
how does mother's age affect prenatal development?
-older mothers are more likely to have difficulty getting pregnancy, miscarriages and stillbirths
-nearly 50% of pregnancies among women in their 40's and 50's result in miscarriages
what is a teratogen?
an agent that causes abnormal prenatal development
sleeping tablet and powerful teratogen that led to thousands of babies with deformed limbs and digits in the late 1950's
what is babinski reflex?
-a baby's toes fan out when foot is stroked from head to toe
-perhaps a remnant of evolution
-baby's eyes close in response to bright light or loud noise
-protects the eyes
-a baby throws its arms out and then inward (as if embracing) in response to loud noise of when its head falls
-may help a baby cling to its mother
-a baby grasps an object places in the palm of its hand?
-precursor to voluntary walking
-when a baby's cheek is stroked, it turns its head toward the stroking and opens its mouth
-helps a baby find the nipple
-a baby who is held upright by an adult and is then moved forward begins to step rhythmically?
-precursor to voluntary walking
-a baby sucks when an object is placed in its mouth?
-a baby withdraws its foot when the sole is pricked with a pin?
-protects a baby from unpleasant stimulation
-Appearance (skin tone)
-Pulse (heart rate)
-Activity (muscle tone)
-Respiration (breathing effort)
what is the apgar index scored from?
0 to 2
what are the different ratings for apgar?
-good physical condition (7+)
-needs special attention (4-6)
-life-threatening (total of 3 or less)
4 systems in neonatal behavioural assessment scale (NBAS)?
1. autonomic: body regulation (e.g. breathing)
2. motor: activity level and control of body
3. state: maintaining states (e.g. alertness)
4. social: interacting with people
the newborn's states?
what is alert inactivity?
-calm, still, eyes open, inspecting environment
what is walking activity?
-eyes open, but unfocussed, uncoordinated motion
starts softly and builds volume and intensity. often seen when the child is hungry or tired
more intense and louder
starts with a loud wail, followed by long pause then gasping
how much do newborns sleep?
16-18 hrs a day
newborn sleep cycle?
4 hour cycle 3 hours sleep and 1 hour awake
sleep cycle by 3 to 4 months?
5-6 hour cycle
sleep cycle by 6 months?
10-12 hours at night
consistent cycles or patterns of infant behaviour?
rothbart's 3 dimensions indicate how much a child...?
-is generally happy, active, vocal, and seeks stimulation (surgency/extroversion)
-is angry, fearful, frustrates, shy, and not easily soothed (negative effect)
-focuses attention, is not easily distracted, and can inhibit impulses (effortful control)
when is growth more rapid?
in infancy than during any other period after birth
what happens to weight by 3 months?
infants double their weight
what happens to weight by 1 year?
infants triple their weight
what is dynamic systems theory?
the idea that motor development involves many distinct skills that are organised over time to meet demands of specific tasks
infants are top heavy and easily lose their balance
what is differentiation?
mastery of component skills
what is integration?
combining them in sequence to accomplish the task
what are infants fine motor skills like at 4 months?
clumsily reach for objects
what are infants fine motor skills like at 5 months?
co-ordinate movement of the 2 hands
what are infants fine motor skills like at 2-3 yrs?
children can use zipper's but not buttons
when do infants learn how to tie shoes?
around 6 years
what is preference affected by?
heredity but environment influence it too
what is perception?
brain processes receiving, selecting, modifying, and organising sensory inputs
newborns and odours?
they distinguish pleasant from unpleasant, or familiar from
newborns and taste?
they differentiate among salty, sour, bitter, sweet, and changes in mother's breast milk
how do we know infants are sensitive to sound?
when do infants distinguish between different pitches as well as adults?
when can infants use sound to locate direction and distance?