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Flashcards in Earth Science Deck (37):
1

Cinder cone volcano

explosive, steep, small, rocks and ash

2

Shield Volcano

gentle slope, wide base, layers of lava

3

Composite (stratovolcano)

very large, explosive, alternate ash/lava
Form Island Arcs/ Volcanic chains

4

Fissure Volcano

Rift in the Earth with lava spraying out

5

Rift Eruption

long, quiet.
Form at Divergent boundaries

6

Hot Spot Eruptions

quiet, form gentle slopes
PLATE moves, not hot spot

7

Pyroclastic material

Ash, Gas, Lava, Tephra, Volcanic bombs

8

Wave refractions

when P/S waves change slightly as passing through different densities.
Bigger density = more curve

9

Shadow Zone

Where you can't detect an earthquake

10

How do Scientists know the core is molten?

S waves cannot travel through liquid.
Aren't detected on other side of Earth, as it stops at core.
Means Core is liquid

11

crust

5-70km
solid, brittle rock
Grinite/basalt

12

Upper Mantle

660km
molten rock (iron/magnesium)

13

Lower Mantle

2225km
solid, dense (magnesium/iron)

14

Outer Ore

2270km
liquid (iron/nickle)

15

inner core

1216km
iron/nickle

16

lithosphere

65-100km
crust/upper mantle

17

Asthenosphere

partly molten layer

18

What did Alfred Wegner propose?

continents move
drifted apart

19

Evidence for Continental Drift

Jigsaw Puzzle Fit
MAtching Geological Structures
MAtching Fossils
Climatic Evidence

20

What did other scienctists think about Wegner?

Didn't have the right mechanism (how it works)
Thought it physically impossible to be able to move large masses

21

Tectonic Plate evidence

Volcano/Earthquake locations (occur at plate boundaries)
Rocks on Ocean floor
Paleomagnetism
Sea floor spreading
Direct Measurement

22

Plate Movement mechinism

Convection currents in asthenosphere
RIDGE PUSH, SLAB PULL

23

Divergent Boundaries

New crust is formed
shallow

24

Convergent boundaries

Crust is consumed
subduction
deep (At subduction zones)

25

Collisional Boundaries

Two land masses collide
mountains

26

Transform Boundaries

Two plates slide against each other
earthquake
shallo

27

Two causes of Earthquakes

Tectonic and Volcanichttp

28

Focus

Where the earthquake starts

29

Epicenter

Point directly above focus on Earth's surface

30

Three types of waves

Primary, Secondary, Love

31

Primary waves

travel through everything
fast
straight

32

Secondary Waves

Solid
Slower
uppy downy

33

Love Waves

Solid
Slowest
Twirly

34

Magnitude

Each step on magnitude scale represents 10 times increase in ground vibration and 30 times increase in energy released.
ex) Magnitude 6 = 10x greater than 5, 30 times more energy released

35

Seismograph

Measures height of waves causing the earthquake

36

Amount of shaking depends on?

Distance to epicenter
Geology of area
Magnitude of Earthquake

37

Liquefaction

Vibrations causing water to rise to surface