Eating Disorders (Exam 3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Eating Disorders (Exam 3) Deck (69):
1

What are the gender differences for eating disorders?

more frequently diagnosed with women

2

Why are eating disorders increasing with men?

-sports where men need to make "weight"
-increased advertising aimed at ideal body image
-ideal muscle

3

Are eating disorders common in young adolescents and the college population?

yes

4

What is the current ideal weight in the US?

15-20% below average

5

Are the issues related to body image culturally defined?

yes

6

What is anorexia nervosa diagnostically?

refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight

7

What is the % of weight loss?

15% below expected weight

8

Is there an intense fear of gaining weight with anorexia?

yes

9

What are the image problems for anorexia?

significant disturbance in perception of shape/size of body

10

What is amenorrhea?

loss of menstruation

11

What are the DSM 5 subtypes for anorexia?

-restricting subtype
-binge-eating/purging subtype

12

What is the restricting subtype of anorexia?

limit caloric intake via diet and fasting

13

What is the binge-eating/purging subtype for anorexia?

induced vomiting of the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas (50% of those diagnosed)

14

What are the associated features of anorexia nervosa?

may wear bulky clothes

15

Why may a person wear bulky clothes who is diagnosed with anorexia?

-because they are cold
-camouflage thinness

16

What is the co-morbidity for someone who is diagnosed with anorexia?

-most are co-morbid for other psychological disorders
-methods of weight loss can have severe life threatening medical consequences

17

What are the psychological changes for someone that is diagnosed with anorexia nervosa?

-low self esteem
-clinical depression
-withdrawal from friendships
-hospitalization

18

What does the research data say about which gender, ethnicity, and SES?

-female
-caucasian
-middle to upper middle class

19

Which age group/range does anorexia develop at?

usually develops around age 13 or early adolescence

20

What is the general mortality rate for anorexia?

highest mortality rate of any mental illness

21

What are the issues with premature death for anorexia?

20% will prematurely die from complications to their eating disorder

22

What is the percentage of deaths by suicide for anorexia?

30-50%

23

What is the medical treatment for anorexia?

none

24

What is the efficacy of anorexia treatments?

none with demonstrated efficacy

25

What is the psychological treatment and goals for anorexia?

-weight restoration
-education behavioral, and cognitive interventions
-involves family

26

What is the long-term prognosis for anorexia?

poorer than for bulimia

27

What does the research data say about Pro-Ana websites for anorexia?

-users were sick longer
-96% learned new tips (ex: weight loss, purging)

28

What do Pro-Ana websites tell people to do for anorexia?

-designed to promote and sustain eating disorder behavior
-symptoms should be treated as lifestyle choices

29

What are the diagnostic features for bulimia nervosa?

characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight

30

What are the roles of binges for bulimia nervosa?

sense of lack of control over eating

31

What are the inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain for bulimia?

-vomiting
-laxatives
-diuretics

32

How is bulimia different from anorexia?

purging and binge cycling

33

What are the DSM 5 subtypes of bulimia?

-purging subtype
-nonpurging subtype

34

What is the most common subtype for bulimia?

purging

35

What is the purging subtype for bulimia?

vomiting, laxatives

36

What is the nonpurging subtype for bulimia?

excess exercise, fasting
(6-8% of cases)

37

What are the medical problems with purging for bulimia?

-damage to electrolyte system
-damage to stomach
-death is a possibility with bulimia

38

What are the psychological features for bulimia?

-become more and more withdrawn
-mood disorders
-anxiety disorders
-substance abuse

39

What are the prevalence rates for bulimia?

-1-3% for females (90% are females)
-6-10% college women
-0.1% for males

40

What is the onset age for bulimia?

around 16-19 years of age

41

What is the death percentage of bulimia?

10% will die from
-starvation
-cardiac arrest
-suicide
-other complications

42

What are the medical treatments for bulimia?

antidepressants can help reduce binging and purging

43

What is the efficacy for the medical treatments for bulimia?

antidepressants are not efficacious in the long-term

44

What is the psychological treatment for bulimia?

-CBT
-interpersonal psychotherapy

45

What is the efficacy for the psychological treatments for bulimia?

both CBT and interpersonal therapy have long term gains

46

What are the statistics for college population and eating disturbances?

61% of college women have some kind of eating disturbance

47

Do college athletes show higher numbers of risk for eating/dieting behaviors?

yes

48

What features do we see with children with eating disorders?

-high achieving
-perfectionistic
-often overly compliant

49

What type of family do children who develop eating disorders come from?

come from family that places great emphasis on physical beauty

50

How early do these women diet?

70% of these women on diets as early as elementary school

51

What you do if a friend has an eating disorder?

-be direct
-don't comment repeatedly on the thinness
-emphasize care about the person

52

What is Body Image Disturbance a continuum of?

Body image satisfaction -> body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)

53

What is the definition of body dysmorphic disorder?

preoccupation with perceived defect in appearance

54

What does preoccupation cause for BDD?

clinically significant distress or impairment

55

What is the new diagnosis category for BDD in the DSM 5?

OCD spectrum disorders

56

What are the problems with BI disturbance?

-high relationship to over al psychological distress
-relationship to seeking elective cosmetic surgery

57

What are the conceptualizations of body dysmorphic disorder?

-somatoform disorder
-eating disorder
-OCD
-psychotic disorder

58

What is the somatoform disorder for BDD?

body-based problem

59

What is the eating disorder for BDD?

BDD present, subsumed by anorexia nervosa

60

What is the OCD spectrum disorder for BDD?

cyclic pattern of checking, symptom alleviation

61

What is the psychotic disorder for BDD?

delusional quality of perceptions and beliefs

62

What is the relationship of BDD and anorexia?

BDD is present, subsumed by Anorexia nervosa

63

What are the challenges to the multiple conceptualizations that have existed for BDD?

-etiology unclear
-treatment (theoretically) depends on formulation (different implications)
-convoluted clinical science

64

What are the alternative conceptualizations for BDD?

-interpersonal factors
-intrapersonal factors

65

What are intrapersonal factors for BDD?

seek to remove or eliminate experience of emotional or cognitive distress (experiential avoidance)

66

Why are the intrapersonal factors for BDD important?

unworkable strategy -> increased problems

67

What are the interpersonal factors for BDD?

creates disconnection with/isolation from others

68

Why are the interpersonal factors for BDD important?

-problems with identifying and asserting needs or values
-repertoire problems in identifying or expressing emotional concerns

69

What are the preventions of BI disturbance?

-sensitivity to media
-education about messages
-reality of what is presented to us for our comparisons
-making effective choices