Flashcards in Eating Disorders (Exam 3) Deck (69):
What are the gender differences for eating disorders?
more frequently diagnosed with women
Why are eating disorders increasing with men?
-sports where men need to make "weight"
-increased advertising aimed at ideal body image
Are eating disorders common in young adolescents and the college population?
What is the current ideal weight in the US?
15-20% below average
Are the issues related to body image culturally defined?
What is anorexia nervosa diagnostically?
refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight
What is the % of weight loss?
15% below expected weight
Is there an intense fear of gaining weight with anorexia?
What are the image problems for anorexia?
significant disturbance in perception of shape/size of body
What is amenorrhea?
loss of menstruation
What are the DSM 5 subtypes for anorexia?
What is the restricting subtype of anorexia?
limit caloric intake via diet and fasting
What is the binge-eating/purging subtype for anorexia?
induced vomiting of the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas (50% of those diagnosed)
What are the associated features of anorexia nervosa?
may wear bulky clothes
Why may a person wear bulky clothes who is diagnosed with anorexia?
-because they are cold
What is the co-morbidity for someone who is diagnosed with anorexia?
-most are co-morbid for other psychological disorders
-methods of weight loss can have severe life threatening medical consequences
What are the psychological changes for someone that is diagnosed with anorexia nervosa?
-low self esteem
-withdrawal from friendships
What does the research data say about which gender, ethnicity, and SES?
-middle to upper middle class
Which age group/range does anorexia develop at?
usually develops around age 13 or early adolescence
What is the general mortality rate for anorexia?
highest mortality rate of any mental illness
What are the issues with premature death for anorexia?
20% will prematurely die from complications to their eating disorder
What is the percentage of deaths by suicide for anorexia?
What is the medical treatment for anorexia?
What is the efficacy of anorexia treatments?
none with demonstrated efficacy
What is the psychological treatment and goals for anorexia?
-education behavioral, and cognitive interventions
What is the long-term prognosis for anorexia?
poorer than for bulimia
What does the research data say about Pro-Ana websites for anorexia?
-users were sick longer
-96% learned new tips (ex: weight loss, purging)
What do Pro-Ana websites tell people to do for anorexia?
-designed to promote and sustain eating disorder behavior
-symptoms should be treated as lifestyle choices
What are the diagnostic features for bulimia nervosa?
characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory methods to prevent weight
What are the roles of binges for bulimia nervosa?
sense of lack of control over eating
What are the inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain for bulimia?
How is bulimia different from anorexia?
purging and binge cycling
What are the DSM 5 subtypes of bulimia?
What is the most common subtype for bulimia?
What is the purging subtype for bulimia?
What is the nonpurging subtype for bulimia?
excess exercise, fasting
(6-8% of cases)
What are the medical problems with purging for bulimia?
-damage to electrolyte system
-damage to stomach
-death is a possibility with bulimia
What are the psychological features for bulimia?
-become more and more withdrawn
What are the prevalence rates for bulimia?
-1-3% for females (90% are females)
-6-10% college women
-0.1% for males
What is the onset age for bulimia?
around 16-19 years of age
What is the death percentage of bulimia?
10% will die from
What are the medical treatments for bulimia?
antidepressants can help reduce binging and purging
What is the efficacy for the medical treatments for bulimia?
antidepressants are not efficacious in the long-term
What is the psychological treatment for bulimia?
What is the efficacy for the psychological treatments for bulimia?
both CBT and interpersonal therapy have long term gains
What are the statistics for college population and eating disturbances?
61% of college women have some kind of eating disturbance
Do college athletes show higher numbers of risk for eating/dieting behaviors?
What features do we see with children with eating disorders?
-often overly compliant
What type of family do children who develop eating disorders come from?
come from family that places great emphasis on physical beauty
How early do these women diet?
70% of these women on diets as early as elementary school
What you do if a friend has an eating disorder?
-don't comment repeatedly on the thinness
-emphasize care about the person
What is Body Image Disturbance a continuum of?
Body image satisfaction -> body dysmorphic disorder (BDD)
What is the definition of body dysmorphic disorder?
preoccupation with perceived defect in appearance
What does preoccupation cause for BDD?
clinically significant distress or impairment
What is the new diagnosis category for BDD in the DSM 5?
OCD spectrum disorders
What are the problems with BI disturbance?
-high relationship to over al psychological distress
-relationship to seeking elective cosmetic surgery
What are the conceptualizations of body dysmorphic disorder?
What is the somatoform disorder for BDD?
What is the eating disorder for BDD?
BDD present, subsumed by anorexia nervosa
What is the OCD spectrum disorder for BDD?
cyclic pattern of checking, symptom alleviation
What is the psychotic disorder for BDD?
delusional quality of perceptions and beliefs
What is the relationship of BDD and anorexia?
BDD is present, subsumed by Anorexia nervosa
What are the challenges to the multiple conceptualizations that have existed for BDD?
-treatment (theoretically) depends on formulation (different implications)
-convoluted clinical science
What are the alternative conceptualizations for BDD?
What are intrapersonal factors for BDD?
seek to remove or eliminate experience of emotional or cognitive distress (experiential avoidance)
Why are the intrapersonal factors for BDD important?
unworkable strategy -> increased problems
What are the interpersonal factors for BDD?
creates disconnection with/isolation from others
Why are the interpersonal factors for BDD important?
-problems with identifying and asserting needs or values
-repertoire problems in identifying or expressing emotional concerns