Flashcards in ECG EXAM 1 Deck (35):
Compromised heart function can be:
Blocked blood flow
S/S of heart disease (s/shd)
Short attacks of pain provoked by exertion and relieved by rest
Slow heart rate, less than 60 bpm
Rapid heart rate, greater than 100 bpm
Pain and weakness in legs when walking because of inadequate blood flow
Skipping or racing heartbeat felt by the patient
Consistent blood pressure greater then 140/90
X-rays after injection of dye
Visualizes heart and measures pressure
Ultrasound waves to visualize heart
Tracing of the hearts electrical activity
Coarctation of the aorta
Narrowing of the aorta causing decreased blood flow
Infection of heart lining and valves
Inflammation of the myocardium
Death of heart tissue due to lack of oxygen
Mitral valve prolapse
Valve does not close properly
Coronary Artery Disease
-Atherosclerosis that is located in coronary arteries
-This decreases blood supply to the coronary arteries
-Producing blockages in the vessels which nourish the heart itself
Peripheral Artery Disease
-Results from fatty deposits (plaque) that build up in the arteries outside the heart, mainly arteries supplying legs and feet. This buildup narrows or blocks your arteries & reduces the amount of blood and O2 delivered to your leg muscles and feet
-take blood away from the heart
-contain oxygenated blood except pulmonary artery and umbilical artery
Deposits of cholesterol and lipids occur along the walls of the arteries this decreases the flexibility of the vessels and causes blockages
Weakness of blood vessel wall
Inflammation of walls of a vein
Blood clot that travels
3 unchangeable risks for HD
-increasing age - 4 out of 5 people who die of CAD are 65 yrs or older.
-gender, men at greater risk earlier. Women catch up after menopause
-Heredity, blacks have more severe HTN
Changeable risks for HD
-obesity and overweight
Why do an ECG
-evaluate how well the heart is pumping & contracting
-dx electrical conduction problems within the heart
-dx changes in heart rhythm
-pre-op check for abnormalities
-evaluate Pt health, esp. after age 40
-monitor Pts w/heart conditions
Dr. Augusta Waller did what, when?
In 1887 showed electrical currents are produced by the heart and can be recorded.
Wilhelm Einthoven did what, when?
He was a Dutch physiologist who invented the first electrocardiography in 1903. In 1924 he won the Nobel peace prize in physiology.
James B. Henrick did what, when?
In 1918, he showed that abnormal tracings and physical symptoms could indicate MI.
Heart cells in their resting state are electrically polarized.
The insides are negatively charged and the outsides are positively charged.
State of cellular stimulation which produces a contraction ACTIVE phase.
-cells of the heart lose negative charge
-depolarization moves from cell to cell thru an electrical pathway.
-causes the heart to contract
-Na+, then Ca enters the cell to contract. Then K+ moves out and depolarization begins. The K+ tells the cells to relax for a moment.
State of cellular recovery which follows a contraction
-cardiac cells return to phase if internal negativity
-during the phase the heart relaxes for refilling of its chambers