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Flashcards in ECG EXAM 1 Deck (35):
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Compromised heart function can be:

Altered rhythm
Weak contractions
Blocked blood flow

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S/S of heart disease (s/shd)
Angina pectoris

Short attacks of pain provoked by exertion and relieved by rest

2

S/shd
Bradycardia

Slow heart rate, less than 60 bpm

3

S/shd
Tachycardia

Rapid heart rate, greater than 100 bpm

4

S/shd
Claudication

Pain and weakness in legs when walking because of inadequate blood flow

5

S/shd
Palpatation

Skipping or racing heartbeat felt by the patient

6

S/shd
Hypertension

Consistent blood pressure greater then 140/90

7

Arteriography/angiography

X-rays after injection of dye

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Cardiac catheterization

Visualizes heart and measures pressure

9

Echocardiogram

Ultrasound waves to visualize heart

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Electrocardiogram

Tracing of the hearts electrical activity

11

Coarctation of the aorta

Narrowing of the aorta causing decreased blood flow

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Bacterial endocarditis

Infection of heart lining and valves

13

Myocarditis

Inflammation of the myocardium

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Myocardial infrarction

Death of heart tissue due to lack of oxygen

15

Mitral valve prolapse

Valve does not close properly

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CAD

Coronary Artery Disease
-Atherosclerosis that is located in coronary arteries
-This decreases blood supply to the coronary arteries
-Producing blockages in the vessels which nourish the heart itself

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PAD

Peripheral Artery Disease
-Results from fatty deposits (plaque) that build up in the arteries outside the heart, mainly arteries supplying legs and feet. This buildup narrows or blocks your arteries & reduces the amount of blood and O2 delivered to your leg muscles and feet

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Arteries

-take blood away from the heart
-contain oxygenated blood except pulmonary artery and umbilical artery

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Atherosclerosis

Deposits of cholesterol and lipids occur along the walls of the arteries this decreases the flexibility of the vessels and causes blockages

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Cardiomegaly

Enlarged heart

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Aneurysm

Weakness of blood vessel wall

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Phlebitis

Inflammation of walls of a vein

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Thrombosis

Blood clot

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Embolus

Blood clot that travels

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3 unchangeable risks for HD

-increasing age - 4 out of 5 people who die of CAD are 65 yrs or older.
-gender, men at greater risk earlier. Women catch up after menopause
-Heredity, blacks have more severe HTN

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Changeable risks for HD

-cigarette smoking
-high cholesterol
-HTN
-physical inactivity
-obesity and overweight
-diabetes
-stress

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Why do an ECG
6

-evaluate how well the heart is pumping & contracting
-dx electrical conduction problems within the heart
-dx changes in heart rhythm
-pre-op check for abnormalities
-evaluate Pt health, esp. after age 40
-monitor Pts w/heart conditions

28

Dr. Augusta Waller did what, when?

In 1887 showed electrical currents are produced by the heart and can be recorded.

29

Wilhelm Einthoven did what, when?

He was a Dutch physiologist who invented the first electrocardiography in 1903. In 1924 he won the Nobel peace prize in physiology.

30

James B. Henrick did what, when?

In 1918, he showed that abnormal tracings and physical symptoms could indicate MI.

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Polarization

Heart cells in their resting state are electrically polarized.
The insides are negatively charged and the outsides are positively charged.

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Depolarization

State of cellular stimulation which produces a contraction ACTIVE phase.
-cells of the heart lose negative charge
-depolarization moves from cell to cell thru an electrical pathway.
-causes the heart to contract
-Na+, then Ca enters the cell to contract. Then K+ moves out and depolarization begins. The K+ tells the cells to relax for a moment.

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Repolarization

State of cellular recovery which follows a contraction
-cardiac cells return to phase if internal negativity
-during the phase the heart relaxes for refilling of its chambers

34

Refractory periods

When cycles reset to prepare for the next wave
-Absolute refractory period - no stimulus can cause another action
( toilet - no flush)
-Relative refractory period - possible to cause another action but it's intensity will be relative to the time in this period (little flush)