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Flashcards in Ecology Deck (54):
1

What is an ecosystem?

Communities of organisms that interact with each other and their environment.

2

What is a producer?

Organism at the base of the food chain that does not feed on other organisms, also known as autotroph.

3

What is a decomposer?

Organism that breaks down organic matter into inorganic materials.

4

What is photosynthesis?

The food-making process in plants that takes place in chloroplasts within cells. The process uses carbon dioxide, water and energy.

5

What are deritivores?

Animal that feeds on and breaks down dead plant or animal matter.

6

What is a population?

A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at a particular time.

7

What is a consumer?

Organism that relies on other organisms for its food.

8

What is parasitism?

An interaction in which one species lives in or on another species from which it obtains food, shelter & other requirements.

9

What is mutualism?

Relationship between two different organisms in which both benefit.

10

What is commensalism?

Relationship between organisms where one benefits and the other is unaffected.

11

What is ecology?

Study of living things, the environment and their interactions.

12

What is a symbiotic relationship?

Very close relationship between two organisms of a different species. It may benefit or harm one of the partners. There are three types - parasitism, commensalism and mutualism

13

What is an ecological niche?

The position of a species or population in its ecosystem in relation to each other

14

What is a predator-prey relationship?

Relationship between organisms in which one species kills and eats the other species.

15

What is a community?

More than one population living in the same area at a particular time.

16

What are species?

A group of living organisms capable of interbreeding with each other but not with members of other species.

17

What is a herbivore?

Animals that only eat plants

18

What is an omnivore?

Animals that eats plants and animals

19

What is competition?

The struggle around organisms for food, territory and other factors.

20

What is intraspecific competition?

Competition between organisms from different species

21

What is biotic?

Living things, their remains and their features, such as nests, associated with their activities

22

What is an abiotic factor?

Non-living things

23

What is humus?

The organic component of soil, formed by decomposition of leaves and other plant material by soil organisms.

24

What is distribution?

The area inhabited by a plant or animal species.

25

What is density?

The number of a species living within an area.

26

What is ecosystem?

Communities of organisms that interact with each other and their environment

27

What is a biotic factor?

The living things (organisms) in an ecosystem

28

What is a tolerance range?

Range of an abiotic factor in the environment

29

What is optimum range?

The range, within a tolerance range for a particular abiotic factor in which an organism functions best.

30

What is biodiversity?

The variety of species of biological organisms, often in relation to a particular area.

31

What are sampling methods?

Techniques used to determine the density and distribution of various populations and communities within an ecosystem.

32

What are transects?

A sampling area along a straight line in which the number of organisms in that area is counted and recorded

33

What are quadrats?

A sampling area, often one square metre, in which the number of organisms in that area is counted and recorded.

34

What is mark,release and recapture?

A sampling method used to determine the abundance of mobile species.

35

What is the Cellular respiration equation?

Glucose + oxygen —

36

What is the photosynthesis equation?

light energy
Co2 + water —

37

What is an introduced species?

Is a species that has been released into an ecosystem in which it doesn’t occur naturally.

38

What makes up the first trophic level?

Producers

39

What is a trophic level?

Levels in the food chain.

40

What makes up the second trophic level?

Herbivores, they are considered first-order or primary consumers.

41

What makes up the third trophic level?

Consumers that eat herbivores, they are considered second order or secondary consumers.

42

What is the population growth equation?

Population growth = (births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration)

43

Why are producers important?

They are essential as they are at the base of the food chain. Plants release oxygen which is essential for a type of cellular respiration called aerobic respiration.

44

What is the difference between interspecific & intraspecific competition?

Interspecific is between two different species and intraspecific is competition between the same species.

45

What is the difference between density and distribution?

Density is a measure of the number of individuals of a species in an area. Distribution is how those individuals are spread out in that area.

46

What is a quadrat used for?

It is used to estimate the distribution and abundance of organisms

47

How is a transect used?

It is used to help us gain info about the distribution of species.

48

What is the difference between a freshwater habitat and a marine habitat?

Salinity is the difference. Organisms in a marine habitat have glands that eliminate the salt.

49

What are some examples of producers?

Photosynthetic organisms such as plants, algae and phytoplankton because they can produce their ow food (glucose).

50

What s another representation of the photosynthesis formula?

6C02 + 12H20 = C6H12O6 + 602 + 6H20

51

Why are plants green?

Visible light consists of all colours of the rainbow. Chlorophyll only reflects green light and absorbs all colours. Plants don’t need to be green to photosynthesise.

52

More info about cellular respiration.

It happens in the mitochondria of the cell. Starch stores the glucose for the night. Plants cellular respire at night and photosynthesise during the day.

53

How can population change be predicted?

It can be predicted by observing feeding relationships. E.g if producer numbers were reducing, the herbivores and animals that eat them will be affected. Introduced species may compete for resources, leading to a reduction in population.

54

What is bioaccumulation or biological magnification?

It is a process that magnifies non-biodegradable pesticides (DDT)