Flashcards in ECOLOGY Outcomes 4.5 - 4.9 (Test on Monday April 25, 2016) Deck (60):
Without the Carbon Cycle, what would earth look like?
Without the Carbon Cycle, earth look like a frozen wasteland because it helps regulate the temperature when its on the atmosphere.
Where is carbon present? 4
It is in rocks
trapped in ice
and it's in the atmosphere
If you were to take out the water out of your body, how many of your remaining body would constitute carbon?
half of the little pile of dust that used to be you
What organism is the first biological carbon reservoir?
How are plants the first biological carbon reservoir? 3
They absorb a lot of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere because they need it to photosynthesize.
They also release carbon dioxide in the atmosphere during their respiration process to make ATP for all their cellular functions.
Plants take in more carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere than they release.
What are the three possible fates of carbon absorbed by plants?
It can be respired back out in the atmosphere
It can be eaten by an animal
Or it can be present when the plant dies
Aside from plants, what is another extremely important carbon reservoir?
How is the ocean an extremely important carbon reservoir?
Carbon dioxide dissolves easily in water
Once it is in there, a lot of it is used by phytoplankton for photosynthesis
They make shells
What are the 3 main ingredients of a fertilizer?
What is the main component of proteins and DNA?
What are examples of Primary Succession? 4 (series)
Pioneer organisms such as lichens are carried to the area by wind or birds. They can live without SOIL OR SHELTER, lichens BREAK DOWN rock and decay to form SOIL
Plants that can grow in very this soil (mosses) join the lichens. Organisms that EAT mosses move into the area.
This causes more rock to break down, more decay and therefore more soil. A wider range of organisms can move into the area
A climax community is created
What is it called when an ecosystem in the primary succession ends when it reached maximum productivity for the environmental conditions?
It is called a Climax community.
While fertilizer can be good for a plant, too much can BLANK or BLANK the plant.
kill or damage
What is nitrogen main component of? 2
In a fertilizer, What does Phosphorous do?
Helps plants to flower
What is a monoculture in agriculture? 3
Example? What is this natural trend called?
A monoculture results when a single crop is grown on a large field
Population of organisms that feed specifically on that plant increases
Humans must then try to deter these organisms by using pesticides.
A potato field has an abundance of potato plants. Potato bugs now have lots of food to eat and reproduce. We now have a huge number of potato bugs eating the crop. The farmer then needs to spray the field to stop the bugs from eating up his entire crop.
This natural trend is called bio diverse ecosystem
What is Secondary Succession? 3
Occurs when an Ecosystem restores itself afetr a DISTURBANCE.
(Ex: Forest fire)
Process does not have to start with bare rock. Can BUILD on the remains of an old system.
The new climax community is similar to but not exactly like the old
What are the 4 most common elements found in living things?
Can organisms absorb nitrogen gas (N₂) directly?
What is the process called when nitrogen atoms must first be pulled out of the air and "fixed" (bonded) to other elements to form new compunds (such as ammonia) with the help of NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA?
This process is called NITROGEN FIXATION
What is primary succession? 2
It involves the series of changes that begins with a BARE LANDSCAPE
(Ex: Lave covered rock)
Ends with ecosystem reaching maximum productivity for the environment conditions called a CLIMAX COMMUNITY
In a fertilizer, What does Potassium do?
It is important for the overall growth of the plant
How does food affect population? 2
The type and amount of food available in any given area affects the population that can be supported by it.
Grain feeds more people than meat
If there is an increase in the the type of food eaten by a particular animal, that population will BLANK
What is an example of too much nitrogen can "burn" or kill a crop?
In the case when an animal Urinates on your lawn.
What do nitrifying bacteria convert Nitrogen turned ammonia to?
What type of bacteria is needed when Nitrogen atoms must first be pulled out of the air and "fixed" (bonded) to other elements to form new compunds (such as ammonia)?
Nitrogen fixing bacteria
In a fertilizer, What does Nitrogen do?
Helps plants turn green
What can nitrates be used for? 2
Nitrates can be used by plants as a source of nitrogen.
They can also do this from ammonia from decomposing organisms
In Disturbances and Succession, what is the definition of Succession?
Is the process in which one ecosystem is gradually replaced by another.
What type of bacteria converts nitrogen turns ammonia into nitrate?
How is it that grain feeds more people than meat?
Since grain is lower on the food chain, it has more energy available.
Can animals only obtain nitrogen from eating other organisms?
What does Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate to? What is the process called?
They convert it to nitrogen gas.
The process is called Denitrification
What are important points on Disturbances and Succession?
Succession can usually changed disturbed ecosystems back into productive ones.
Severe disturbances can produce irreversible changes
This is especially true if soil or a species is poisoned over a large area.
Severely disturbed areas can stay unproductive for hundreds or can even thousands of years.
Ex: Badlands of Alberta used to be a jungle, now it is a desert
What is productivity? 2
Refers to the amount of plant mass produced in a particular area.
Ex: Ever heard of a garden being "Productive"
Affected by water, nutrients and sunlight
Where does photosynthesis take place in?
In the chlorophyll, which is found in the cell's chloroplasts
What is it called when natural trend like monoculture happen?
The natural trend is called bio diverse ecosystem
What do plants do from taking the sun's energy along with carbon dioxide and water? 2
to make food (carbohydrates)
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
Energy (sunlight) + 6CO2 =====> C6 H12 O6 + 6O2
What is a Biological invasion?
Occurs when a species arrives in an area in which it was previously not found.
When organisms breakdown food (carbohydrates) during Respiration, with the help of oxygen, what does it produce?
What are Exotic species?
An organism that has invaded an ecosystem in which it did not evolve.
What are pesticides? 2
Are used to control organisms that destroy crops that are useful to humans.
Accumulate, spread in increasing number or quantity in an ecosystem as the level of food chain gets higher.
This called BIOMAGNIFICATION
eX: tHE PESTICIDE, ddt IS A GOOD EXAMPLKE OF HOW BIOMAGNIFICATION WORKS. aNIMALS THAT ARE LOWER OF THE FOOD CHAIN (PRIMARY CONSUMERS) HAVE LESS DDT IN THEM. aS YOU GET HIGHER IN THE FOOD CHAIN (SECONDARY AND TERTIARY CONSUMERS) THE DDT INCREASES
What is the equation for Cellular respiration?
C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 =====> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy
What are the ecological impacts of introduced species? 6
Disruption of food web
Loss of biodiversity
What is the percent of earth's productivity that humans use and affect for human consumption?
What is Cellular respiration?
It is simply photosynthesis in reverse
Only Producers practice photosynthesis, but all organisms (including producers) carry out Cellular Respiration.
Where does cellular respiration take place in a plant cell?
in the mitochondrion
How can species be introduced intentionally? 4
What is photosynthesis?
Is when plants take the sun's energy along with carbon dioxide and water to make food (carbohydrates) and oxygen
What are the 4 factors that determine carrying capacity?
Materials and enrgy
-All populations are limited by the supply of essential materials(carbon, water, etc) and the amount of usable energy from the sun.
-The population size at any trophic level below it (What it eats) nad the trophic level above it. (what east it)
Competitions for food
=inter-specific-Competition between different species. (food, territory)
=intraspecific-Competition of members of the same species. (food, mate, territory).
Different organisms require different amounts of space based on size, environment and way of life.
What are some things that might limit how many individuals of an organism can live in one location? 6
Mating season doesn't last long
They can be easy targets for parasites and hunters
Prey moves a lot
What is the dramatic effect on other species about the percent we use and affect of earth productivity? What about us?
It gives them less space and resources for all other species
It had led to an alarming HUMAN GROWTH RATE (this trend can't continue much longer)
How can species be introduced accidentally? 3
Escape from agriculture
What is the definition of populations? 2
The number of individuals of a species that live in a defined area
In nature, the population of any species in an environment will reach a maximum. It is called the CARRYING CAPACITY
How can introduced species be controlled? 3 with one that has 4 examples
Inspections at travel centres
Control of established exotics
=Shooting and trapping
=mechanical removal (plants)
What is happening in Region A in a population growth curve?
Slow rate of reproduction
Only a small number of organisms are sexually mature and able to reproduce
The organisms may be adjusting to a new environment
What is happening in Region C in a population growth curve?
The carrying capacity has been reached
Population growth becomes constant
The number of deaths equals the number of births