ECOLOGY Outcomes 4.5 - 4.9 (Test on Monday April 25, 2016) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ECOLOGY Outcomes 4.5 - 4.9 (Test on Monday April 25, 2016) Deck (60):
1

Without the Carbon Cycle, what would earth look like?

Without the Carbon Cycle, earth look like a frozen wasteland because it helps regulate the temperature when its on the atmosphere.

2

Where is carbon present? 4

It is in rocks

oceans

trapped in ice

and it's in the atmosphere

3

If you were to take out the water out of your body, how many of your remaining body would constitute carbon?

half of the little pile of dust that used to be you

4

What organism is the first biological carbon reservoir?

plants

5

How are plants the first biological carbon reservoir? 3

They absorb a lot of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere because they need it to photosynthesize.

They also release carbon dioxide in the atmosphere during their respiration process to make ATP for all their cellular functions.

Plants take in more carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere than they release.

6

What are the three possible fates of carbon absorbed by plants?

It can be respired back out in the atmosphere

It can be eaten by an animal

Or it can be present when the plant dies

7

Aside from plants, what is another extremely important carbon reservoir?

The ocean

8

How is the ocean an extremely important carbon reservoir?

Carbon dioxide dissolves easily in water

Once it is in there, a lot of it is used by phytoplankton for photosynthesis

They make shells

9

What are the 3 main ingredients of a fertilizer?

Nitrogen

Phosphorous

Potassium

10

What is the main component of proteins and DNA?

Nitrogen

11

What are examples of Primary Succession? 4 (series)

Pioneer organisms such as lichens are carried to the area by wind or birds. They can live without SOIL OR SHELTER, lichens BREAK DOWN rock and decay to form SOIL

Plants that can grow in very this soil (mosses) join the lichens. Organisms that EAT mosses move into the area.

This causes more rock to break down, more decay and therefore more soil. A wider range of organisms can move into the area

A climax community is created

12

What is it called when an ecosystem in the primary succession ends when it reached maximum productivity for the environmental conditions?

It is called a Climax community.

13

While fertilizer can be good for a plant, too much can BLANK or BLANK the plant.

kill or damage

14

What is nitrogen main component of? 2

Proteins

and

DNA

15

In a fertilizer, What does Phosphorous do?

Helps plants to flower

16

What is a monoculture in agriculture? 3
Example? What is this natural trend called?

A monoculture results when a single crop is grown on a large field

Population of organisms that feed specifically on that plant increases

Humans must then try to deter these organisms by using pesticides.
===========

A potato field has an abundance of potato plants. Potato bugs now have lots of food to eat and reproduce. We now have a huge number of potato bugs eating the crop. The farmer then needs to spray the field to stop the bugs from eating up his entire crop.
=========

This natural trend is called bio diverse ecosystem

17

What is Secondary Succession? 3

Occurs when an Ecosystem restores itself afetr a DISTURBANCE.
(Ex: Forest fire)

Process does not have to start with bare rock. Can BUILD on the remains of an old system.

The new climax community is similar to but not exactly like the old

18

What are the 4 most common elements found in living things?

Nitrogen

Carbon

Hydrogen

Oxygen

19

Can organisms absorb nitrogen gas (Nā‚‚) directly?

no

20

What is the process called when nitrogen atoms must first be pulled out of the air and "fixed" (bonded) to other elements to form new compunds (such as ammonia) with the help of NITROGEN FIXING BACTERIA?

This process is called NITROGEN FIXATION

21

What is primary succession? 2

It involves the series of changes that begins with a BARE LANDSCAPE
(Ex: Lave covered rock)

Ends with ecosystem reaching maximum productivity for the environment conditions called a CLIMAX COMMUNITY

22

In a fertilizer, What does Potassium do?

It is important for the overall growth of the plant

23

How does food affect population? 2

The type and amount of food available in any given area affects the population that can be supported by it.

Grain feeds more people than meat

24

If there is an increase in the the type of food eaten by a particular animal, that population will BLANK

Increase

25

What is an example of too much nitrogen can "burn" or kill a crop?

In the case when an animal Urinates on your lawn.

26

What do nitrifying bacteria convert Nitrogen turned ammonia to?

Nitrates

27

What type of bacteria is needed when Nitrogen atoms must first be pulled out of the air and "fixed" (bonded) to other elements to form new compunds (such as ammonia)?

Nitrogen fixing bacteria


28

In a fertilizer, What does Nitrogen do?

Helps plants turn green

29

What can nitrates be used for? 2

Nitrates can be used by plants as a source of nitrogen.

They can also do this from ammonia from decomposing organisms

30

In Disturbances and Succession, what is the definition of Succession?

Is the process in which one ecosystem is gradually replaced by another.

31

What type of bacteria converts nitrogen turns ammonia into nitrate?

Nitrifying bacteria

32

How is it that grain feeds more people than meat?

Since grain is lower on the food chain, it has more energy available.

33

Can animals only obtain nitrogen from eating other organisms?

yes

34

What does Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate to? What is the process called?

They convert it to nitrogen gas.

The process is called Denitrification

35

What are important points on Disturbances and Succession?

Succession can usually changed disturbed ecosystems back into productive ones.

Severe disturbances can produce irreversible changes

This is especially true if soil or a species is poisoned over a large area.
Severely disturbed areas can stay unproductive for hundreds or can even thousands of years.
Ex: Badlands of Alberta used to be a jungle, now it is a desert

36

What is productivity? 2

Refers to the amount of plant mass produced in a particular area.
Ex: Ever heard of a garden being "Productive"

Affected by water, nutrients and sunlight

37

Where does photosynthesis take place in?

In the chlorophyll, which is found in the cell's chloroplasts

38

What is it called when natural trend like monoculture happen?

The natural trend is called bio diverse ecosystem

39

What do plants do from taking the sun's energy along with carbon dioxide and water? 2

to make food (carbohydrates)

and oxygen

40

.
What is the equation for photosynthesis?

Energy (sunlight) + 6CO2 =====> C6 H12 O6 + 6O2

41

What is a Biological invasion?

Occurs when a species arrives in an area in which it was previously not found.

42

When organisms breakdown food (carbohydrates) during Respiration, with the help of oxygen, what does it produce?

Carbon dioxide

Water

And energy

43

What are Exotic species?

An organism that has invaded an ecosystem in which it did not evolve.

44

What are pesticides? 2
eXAMPLE?

Are used to control organisms that destroy crops that are useful to humans.

Accumulate, spread in increasing number or quantity in an ecosystem as the level of food chain gets higher.
This called BIOMAGNIFICATION
============

eX: tHE PESTICIDE, ddt IS A GOOD EXAMPLKE OF HOW BIOMAGNIFICATION WORKS. aNIMALS THAT ARE LOWER OF THE FOOD CHAIN (PRIMARY CONSUMERS) HAVE LESS DDT IN THEM. aS YOU GET HIGHER IN THE FOOD CHAIN (SECONDARY AND TERTIARY CONSUMERS) THE DDT INCREASES

45

What is the equation for Cellular respiration?

C6 H12 O6 + 6O2 =====> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy

46

What are the ecological impacts of introduced species? 6

Direct predation

Plant pathogens

Disease transmission

Disruption of food web

Loss of biodiversity

Extinction

47

What is the percent of earth's productivity that humans use and affect for human consumption?

20%

48

What is Cellular respiration?

It is simply photosynthesis in reverse

Only Producers practice photosynthesis, but all organisms (including producers) carry out Cellular Respiration.

49

Where does cellular respiration take place in a plant cell?

in the mitochondrion

50

How can species be introduced intentionally? 4

Agriculture

Biotechnology

Pet trade

Ornamental

51

What is photosynthesis?

Is when plants take the sun's energy along with carbon dioxide and water to make food (carbohydrates) and oxygen

52

What are the 4 factors that determine carrying capacity?

Materials and enrgy
-All populations are limited by the supply of essential materials(carbon, water, etc) and the amount of usable energy from the sun.

Food chains
-The population size at any trophic level below it (What it eats) nad the trophic level above it. (what east it)

Competitions for food
=inter-specific-Competition between different species. (food, territory)
=intraspecific-Competition of members of the same species. (food, mate, territory).

Population density
Different organisms require different amounts of space based on size, environment and way of life.

53

What are some things that might limit how many individuals of an organism can live in one location? 6

Food scarcity

Territorial dispute

Mating season doesn't last long

Soliditary mindset

They can be easy targets for parasites and hunters

Prey moves a lot

54

What is the dramatic effect on other species about the percent we use and affect of earth productivity? What about us?

It gives them less space and resources for all other species

It had led to an alarming HUMAN GROWTH RATE (this trend can't continue much longer)

55

How can species be introduced accidentally? 3

Ship ballast

Air travel

Escape from agriculture

56

What is the definition of populations? 2

The number of individuals of a species that live in a defined area

In nature, the population of any species in an environment will reach a maximum. It is called the CARRYING CAPACITY

57

How can introduced species be controlled? 3 with one that has 4 examples

Inspections at travel centres

Ballast regulations

Control of established exotics
=Shooting and trapping
=mechanical removal (plants)
=pesticides
=biological control

58

What is happening in Region A in a population growth curve?

Slow rate of reproduction

Only a small number of organisms are sexually mature and able to reproduce

The organisms may be adjusting to a new environment

59

What is happening in Region C in a population growth curve?

The carrying capacity has been reached

Population growth becomes constant

The number of deaths equals the number of births

60

What is happening in Region B in a population growth curve?

Many organisms have reached sexual maturity and are reproducing

The organisms have adjusted to their environment

They have ample food and water