Flashcards in Economic Policies Before 1928 Deck (20):
When was State Capitalism?
What was State Capitalism?
Strong degree of state control but private markets were still an important feature.
Used existing structures until the transition had been complete and a fully fledged socialist society could be adopted.
Why was State Capitalism introduced?
So the Bolsheviks could consolidate their power fully before true socialism could begin.
When was War Communism?
Why was War Communism introduced?
The desperate situation caused by the Civil War.
What were the features of War Communism?
What happened with requisitioning under War Communism?
Peasant's grain was vigorously requisitioned and distributed to the cities to feed the workers.
Who were the Kulaks?
Made wealth of their farming and were labelled 'enemies of the people'.
What happened with nationalisation under War Communism?
The nationalisation of foreign trade and all industries was carried out.
What was the first entire industry nationalised?
Sugar in May 1918 followed by oil in June
Was War Communism successful?
It caused more problems then it solved.
What were the effects of War Communism?
Food shortages and this led to famine in 1921 when the harvest produced 48% of that of 1913.
By 1921 total industry output had fallen to 20% of its pre-war levels.
By 1920 the population of Petrograd had fallen by 57.5% and Moscow's population had fallen by 44.5% compared to the 1917 level.
What did War Communism lead to?
The Tambov and Kronstadt rebellions.
When was the New Economic Policy?
1921 - 1928
Why was the NEP introduced?
Meet Russia's urgent need for food.
Regain control after Kronstadt and Tambov by making concessions for workers and peasants.
Increase industrial output by allowing private trade and reduce restrictions on working conditions.
Under War Communism how much had production fallen by?
Fell below 1914 levels.
Small factories were producing 43% of their 1917 level.
Large factories were producing 18% of their 1917 level.
What were the features of the NEP?
Grain requisitioning was ended.
Ban on private trade was ended.
State still controlled large-scale heavy industry like coal,etc.
Small-scale industry was returned to private trade.
Rationing was ended.
What was grain requisitioning replaced with in NEP?
Peasants were still required to give a quota to the state but were allowed to sell any remaining food on the open market.
What were the positives of NEP?
Raised production and by 1926 production reached 1913 levels.
Got economy moving again.