Economic Reform And Decline After 1964 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Economic Reform And Decline After 1964 Deck (15):

What two key Khrushchev era economic reforms were undone when he fell from power?

- The division between agricultural and industrial bureaux was ended

- Seven Year Plans were rejected with Five Year Plans being reinstated in 1966


What were the Kosygin reforms?

- Cut investment to failing farms and channel their funds to light industry

- Devolve power over factories to their managers

- Judge the success of factories by profit, not production


When were the Kosygin reforms introduced?



Why did the Kosygin reforms come to a halt in August 1968?

Similar reforms in Czechoslovakia had resulted in rebellion which discredited Kosygin’s programme


When did Brezhnev achieve nuclear parity with the USA? Why was he anxious to do so?

1970. It was made a priority because Khrushchev had had to back out of the Berlin Crisis 1961 and the Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 because of the USA’s military superiority


How much did Brezhnev increase military spending by?

It went from 11% of GDP in 1964 to 13% of GDP in 1970


What was Developed Socialism?

Brezhnev’s alternative promise when he realised the USSR wasn’t going to achieve Communism by 1980. Developed Socialism was basically an economy with job security and low prices.


How did Brezhnev keep food prices low?

He imported grain from the West rather than risking agricultural reform


When did Andropov launch the Anti-Corruption campaign?

November 1982


What was Andropov’s Anti-Alcohol campaign?

He introduced a policy of sacking workers who showed up drunk and finding damage caused by drunk workers


What was Operation Trawl?

An Andropov era campaign of sending the KGB to parks, restaurants and train stations to arrests drunks and truants


How effective were Andropov’s labour discipline reforms?

+ Traditional vodka consumption decreases

- Consumption of cheaper lower quality vodka, lovingly dubbed Andropovka, increased

- Campaigns poorly enforced


What was economic growth like under Khrushchev and Brezhnev?

1950-58 it was at 7.1% however by the 1970s it was more like 2%


What is meant by saying that the Soviet economy was good at “extensive growth” but not “intensive growth”?

It was good at opening new factories, workshops and mines however lacked the knowhow to increase the efficiency of existing ones.


How did the USSR manage to keep living standards up despite the slow down in growth?

- They monopolised on the nearly three fold increase in oil prices between 1965 and 1980

- They imported grain from the West

- Western banks allowed them to take loans given the success of their oil trade