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Flashcards in Economics Deck (168):
1

Exports of rural origin make up about 60 per cent by value of Australia's export income. True or false?

False

2

True or false, a steady decline in productivity has caused the decline in farmers terms of trade.

False - caused by increased cost of living while their product prices remain the same.

3

Farmers terms of trade can be defined as the ratio of prices received by farmers to prices paid by farmers. True or false?

True

4

Australian farmers rely more heavily on purchased inputs than they did in the past. True or false?

True

5

Australia is essentially a rural society, we are not urbanised and we are culturally homogenous. True or false?

False

6

Agriculture contributes more than 10% to Australian gross domestic product. True or false?

False - only 3%

7

Most of Australia's rural exports go to Europe. True or false?

False

8

The decline in farmers terms of trade is also a measure of the cost price squeeze in agriculture. True or false?

True

9

True or false, the top 4 product groups, wheat, wool, cattle and milk make up 60% of gross value of farm production.

False.

10

Exports of rural origin make up 60% of Australia's export income value. True or false?

False

11

The supply curve for peanuts slopes downwards to the right because large farms can increase their output so much easier than small farms can. True or false?

False

12

In the case where Py=MR=MC=ATC, profit must be zero. True or false.

False

13

A firm may choose to produce at a loss in the short run, and wisely so, if it is at least.....

Covering its variable costs.

14

The most profitable level of output is always where ATC is a minimum. True or false?

False

15

If ATC is $10 per unit, AFC is $6 per unit and average revenue is $5 per unit the firm should immediately cease production. True or false?

False

16

A family farm that is operated solely with the family's labour....

Cannot escape a labour cost in operating their farm.

17

Farmers tend to maintain output when prices have fallen because....

Agricultural production systems are constrained by biological factors.

18

Marginal costs are the costs relevant to a decision because they..

Are the only costs that will be affected by the decision.

19

The competitive firms short-run supply curve is also its...

MC curve above minimum AVC

20

Which of the following would cause the long run Riverina poultry supply to shift to the right?

Discovery of an inexpensive serum injection that makes broilers gain weight much more rapidly.

21

A peasant response to a decrease in the price of a major output is?

Continue to produce to meet their own needs.

22

If producers increase the quantity supplied in response to an increase in the price of their product, they will experience...

An increase in total revenue.

23

What is PPF?

Production possibilities frontier, graph showing opportunity cost.

24

True or false, marginal cost can also be viewed as the opportunity cost?

True

25

How do you determine marginal cost?

Change in total cost divided by the units of input.

26

What does a production function relate?

Physical output of a production process to physical inputs or factors of production.

27

What is the law of diminishing returns?

Used to refer to a point at which the level of profits or benefits gained is less than the amount of money or energy invested.

28

How do you determine average physical product?

Output divided by input.

29

The opportunity cost of one more unit of a variable input is....

The same as the total variable cost.

30

The marginal cost is the amount that is added to total cost when another unit of the variable input is used. True or false?

True

31

A declining long run average cost curve indicate that economies of size are available. True or false?

True

32

Fixed costs that result from owning farm assets such as machinery include all but which of the following?

Fuel and lubrication

33

The time period which is short enough that the firm is able to vary the quantities of some (but not all) of its resources is called.

The short run

34

In perfect competition the competitive firms demand for a variable output is....

It's entire MR curve

35

A production function tells us....

Relationship between physical output compared to physical inputs or factors of production.

36

The marginal cost curve....

Will eventually increase as output is increased

37

Farmers would be fairly happy to make zero economic profit. True or false?

True

38

If the purchase price of an input decreases, a profit maximising farmer should...

Use more input and produce more output.

39

A production process requires at least one fixed input for the law of diminishing returns to be in effect. True or false?

True

40

Marginal cost, by definition, is the additional cost incurred in using another unit of input. True or false?

True.

41

What is the average physical product produced at 25 units when output is 85?

3.4
Output divided by input.

42

Capital is...

One of the three factors of production including land and labour. Goods with the following features are capital; can be used in production of other goods, can be made by humans, not used up immediately in the production process.

43

To optimise the use of a variable input it should be used to the point where it's addition to costs just equals its addition to total revenue. True or false?

True

44

Marginal revenue is equal to the output price as long as that price is constant. True or false?

True

45

Doubling both input and output price will not change the profit maximising input and output level. True or false?

True

46

Marginal physical product is the addition to total physical product that is obtained by using one more unit of the variable input. True or false?

True

47

MC is equal to the change in TVC divided by the change in output. True or false?

True

48

The increase in MC that accompanies increased output occurs because of diminishing marginal productivity of the firms variable resources. True or false?

True

49

Marginal costs can be calculated by the change in total costs divided by the change in input. True or false?

True

50

A production function describes the relationship between resources and their product. True or false?

True

51

The law of diminishing productivity applies only to those production situations where all resources are variable. True or false?

False

52

The law of diminishing productivity states that 'as successive amounts of a variable input are combined with a fixed input, the total product will increase, reach a maximum, and eventually decline'. True or false?

True

53

To compute marginal cost you would use...

Change in total cost divided by change in output.

54

Diminishing marginal returns occurs due to biological limitations. True or false?

True

55

As a general rule, if the price of the output increases, you should use more input to maximise profit. True or false?

True

56

A family farm that is operated solely with that family's labour...

Cannot escape a labour cost of operating the farm

57

When another unit of a variable input will add more to total revenue then it costs to use, that unit of input...

Is one whose MR is greater than its MC

58

MPP can never be negative. True or false?

False

59

Stage II of the production function is that part of the function where both APP and MPP are positive and declining. True or false?

True

60

Depreciation is classified as a cash cost. True or false?

False

61

The law of diminishing marginal returns means that as the level of input is increased....

The amount of product produced increases more slowly than the amount of input used.

62

In the short run....

Total variable costs are zero when there is no production

63

Marginal physical product is...

The units of output produced by one more unit of input.

64

The dividing line between stage I and stage II is determined on a production function graph at....

The point of maximum APP

65

It is possible for the opportunity cost of an input to be very low or zero if there is no alternative use for it. True or false?

True

66

Total variable cost must always increase as the firms output is increased. True or false?

True

67

For an owner-operated firm, it's total cost of production for any given output is....

Equal to its explicit costs plus implicit costs.

68

Which of the following would not cause economies of size to result if a particular farm or ranch expanded production?

Travel time to transport crops or dispose of manure is increased.

69

When APP is increasing, MPP will be less than APP because of diminishing productivity. True or false?

False

70

Both fixed and variable costs exist in the short run. True or false?

True

71

At the level of input and output where marginal revenue is equal to marginal cost, profit will always be positive. True or false?

False

72

Stage III of the production function is characterised by a negative APP. True or false?

False

73

The cost of producing an additional unit of output is...

Marginal cost

74

ATC will decrease at first, then increase as more and more output is produced. True or false?

True

75

Diminishing marginal productivity results from changing input proportions. True or false?

False

76

MR is greater than AR within stage II of the production function. True or false?

True

77

If MPP is less than APP, then APP is.....

Decreasing

78

Implicit costs are the same as opportunity costs. True or false?

True

79

The marginal product of a resource is measurable in physical terms but not in value terms. True or false?

True

80

Fixed costs, by definition, is the cost of producing more units of output. True or false?

False

81

Because it is possible for resources to be combined in many different ways, it is not possible to determine the marginal productivity of any single one of them. True or false?

False

82

A production function is in the amount of physical product obtained with different....

Levels of input

83

Variable costs such as seed and fertiliser that have already been paid for and applied are called sunk costs. True or false?

True

84

To maximise total profit, farms or ranches should produce the level of output at which average total cost per unit is manimised. True or false?

False

85

There are increasing returns to size whenever increasing the output of the business results in...

A smaller average cost per unit of output.

86

Labour can either be a cash expense or an opportunity cost. True or false?

True

87

When average physical product begins to decrease, you should stop adding more fertiliser. True or false?

False

88

AFC is constant as output increases. True or false?

False

89

At the output level where MC is just equal to ATC....

ATC is at its minimum value

90

Interest is included as a variable cost on a gross margin budget as...

An opportunity cost on variable costs regardless of whether borrowed or equity capital will be used.

91

Gross margin budgets are useful when selecting enterprises to include in a whole farm plan. True or false?

True

92

Ownership or fixed costs for farm buildings does not include..

Utilities

93

Which of the following would be a fixed cost and excluded on a typical crop gross margin budget?

Land charge

94

It is safe to assume that the input levels shown on published gross margin budgets are the profit maximising amounts. True or false?

False

95

True or false, there are no opportunity costs on a gross margin budget.

False

96

There is only one possible gross margin budget for each enterprise. True or false?

False

97

A gross margin budget lists all the returns and expenses associated with producing a unit of a given enterprise. True or false?

True

98

For a given total cost, the higher the yield, the lower the break even price. True or false?

True

99

Permanent labour and machinery costs are fixed because....

Accurate figures in relation to labour and machinery use require time consuming and detailed records.

100

Which of the following terms, if used on a gross margin budget, would be considered the same as variable cost?

Operating cost

101

Only cash revenues are included on a gross margin budget. True or false?

False

102

A crop gross margin budget containing all economic costs would include an entry for...

All of the above

103

If fixed costs on an enterprise budget were to increase, the market price needed to break even would increase. True or false?

True

104

In a farm enterprise a common unit of production is....

Land area of pasture

105

The equation for break even yield is total cost divided by selling price. True or false?

True

106

The cost of production is the same as average total cost. True or false?

True

107

The cost of production is computed from the equation....

Total cost divided by output

108

If the cost of production is greater than the selling price, the revenue from e enterprise will be less than the total economic costs, true or false?

True

109

A partial budget is an appropriate tool for analysing....

The expansion of an existing enterprise

110

If a partial budget shows some fixed or ownership costs under reduced costs, it means...

The proposed alternative would allow sale of a capital asset that will no longer be needed.

111

On a partial budget, costs and returns must be included for all enterprises on the farm. True or false?

False

112

On a partial budget which analyses switching 120 acres from growing wheat to growing barley, which of the following costs should not be included on the budget?

Property tax on the land

113

Which of the following are the profit decreasing changes on a partial budget?

Additional costs and reduced revenue

114

True or false, opportunity costs are never included on a partial budget.

False

115

Which of the following are the profit increasing changes on a partial budget?

Reduced costs and additional revenue

116

A single partial budget can analyse up to four alternatives, true or false?

False

117

The values shown on a partial budget are...

Only changes in revenue and expenses

118

Only changes in variable or operating costs are included on a partial budget. True or false?

False

119

A partial budget can be used to evaluate one specific change in an operation. True or false?

True

120

Not all partial budgets will need to include some fixed ownership costs. True or false?

True

121

Fixed costs are never included on a partial budget, true or false?

False

122

Most partial budgets will need to include some opportunity costs, true or false?

True

123

A partial budget would be the most useful type of budget for estimating...

The change in profit from installing an irrigation system in one field.

124

A partial budget analyses only two management alternatives at one time, true or false?

True

125

Change in profit is the only factor to consider when looking at the results of a partial budget. True or false?

False

126

Changing a crop rotation to plant 80hectares more barley and 80 hectares less wheat would be a excision which could be analysed using a partial budget. True or false?

True

127

Only cash expenses are shown on a partial budget. True or false?

False

128

The better alternative as shown on a partial budget is sure to be the one which maximises profit for the business. True or false?

False

129

If the partial budget includes purchasing a new machine, there should be additional fixed costs in the budget. True or false?

True

130

A partial budget includes only those costs and revenues which change if the proposed alternative is adopted. True or false?

True

131

Will all partial budgets contain some fixed costs?

Not all, if the proposed change doesn't include any changes in capital assets owned then there will be no change in fixed costs.

132

Why are opportunity costs included in partial budgets?

A proposed change analysed in a partial budget may require a large increase or decrease in the amount of labour, capital, or management used. Some of these may be provided by the farm operator and have no direct costs.

133

Assume a proposed change would reduce labour requirements by 200 hours. If this was the farm operators labour rather than hired hourly labour, would you include a reduced cost for labour? What factors would determine the value to use?

Yes, there is an opportunity cost for the operators labour and depends on the possible alternative uses for the farmers time.

134

True or false, partial budgeting can be used to develop a whole farm plan.

False.

135

Besides additional profit, what other factors should a farm operator take into account when evaluating a proposed change?

Price, yield, risk, additional capital requirements, additional management skills, timing of cash flows, availability of new or additional resources.

136

Draw up a partial budget.

Problem at top, on left have additional revenue and reduced costs.
Right side have additional costs and reduced revenue.
At bottom calculate net change in profit (Left minus right).

137

How do you determine the break even point?

EMVx=EMVy
make p=probability x and 1-p=probability y

EMV is expected monetary value and is determined by the sum of probability x value

138

How do you determine gross margin?

Gross income - variable costs

139

What is the difference between technical and economic efficiency?

Technical is output/input where as economic is value of output/cost of inputs

140

How do you determine ATC?

Total costs/total input

141

Do gross margins include fixed costs?

No

142

What is decision analysis?

Formalised approach to a series of methods to help rationalise decisions in an uncertain world.
Effort required depends on importance of decision, cost of the analysis, resources available.

143

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of formal decision analysis.

Focuses formal thinking, exposes hidden assumptions and makes clear logical implications, provides effective vehicle for communicating the reasons underlying recommendations.
Requires time and effort, estimates are often crude and subjective, often uncertainty over best decision criteria to use.

144

What is a good decision? Give an example of a good decision with a poor outcome.

Good decision is choice based on rational interpretation of the available information.
A good decision may not be the correct decision.
Good decision to jet sheep for fly strike due to wet winters but then end up having a dry one.

145

What is expected monetary value?

Weighted average of all possible states of nature.
Sum of Probability1 x value1 + P2 x V2
Action with highest EMV is selected. Can be 0.

146

What is another equation that can be used to determine break even?

Price x quantity = AVC x quantity + fixed costs

147

How do you determine AFC?

FC/ output

148

How do you determine AVC?

VC/output

149

How do you determine ATC?

TC/output

150

When should a business shut down?

When they can no longer cover their fixed costs

151

What are economies of scale?

Occur when all the resources are increased in constant proportions. Typically result from the division of labor and indivisibility.

152

Three veterinary clinics in the same town merge. Output increases, explain why.

Economies of scale, benefits come from the division of labour.

153

A farmer buys 200ha from the neighbours and does not need any additional machinery. Explain why the profitability might improve.

Proportions of he business have changed, resulting in economies of size. There is now excess capacity in the farmers machinery, merge may have reduced competition.

154

What kind of market is agriculture?

Perfectly competitive

155

What can the producer do in a monopoly?

Set prices

156

How do you calculate % change in output?

(Production after - production before)/production before
X 100

157

How do you calculate % change in variable costs?

(VC after - VC before) / VC before X 100

158

Describe the law of diminishing marginal productivity.

When variable costs rise faster than output.

159

How can profit increase despite an increase in costs?

Occurs when fixed costs are under-utilised, as production increases so do variable costs. Fixed costs remain constant and AFC will fall as production increases as they are spread over more units of output.

160

What would marginal analysis indicate about optimal stocking rate and level of input?

Profit is maximised when MR=MC.
As long as MR exceeds MC the input level should be increased.

161

True or false? Technical efficiency is the efficiency with which physical inputs create physical output.

True

162

True or false, economic efficiency examines the efficiency with which cost of inputs are transformed to valuable outputs. This produces goods that are most valuable to humans at the lowest cost.

True

163

Describe the relationship illustrated by a production function.

Production is the transformation of inputs (land, labour, capital) into goods and services. The actual relationship between an input and output is displayed on a production function. Illustrates the maximum output that can be achieved with a given level of an input, assuming all other inputs are fixed.

164

How do fixed and variable inputs differ?

Fixed inputs do not vary with the level of output. Variable inputs do.

165

In the long run, what happens to fixed inputs?

No fixed inputs in the long run.
Quantity of all inputs can potentially be varied.

166

What is the law of diminishing returns?

Law states that each successive unit of output tends to result in smaller increases in output. Occurs in all production systems as the output becomes constrained by the other inputs.

167

Total revenue is equal to what?

Price x TPP

168

Marginal revenue is equal to what?

Price x MPP