Ecosystems And Rainforests Flashcards Preview

Geography (Physical) > Ecosystems And Rainforests > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ecosystems And Rainforests Deck (44):
1

What is the definition of a Producer?

An organism that makes its own food.

2

What is the definition of a Consumer?

An organism that obtains energy by feeding on other organisms.

3

What is the definition of a Decomposer?

Fungi and bacteria that break down organic material.

4

What are Biotic Members?

Living things (plants and animals)

5

What Are Abiotic Factors

Non-living factors (Weather, soil etc)

6

What is an ecosystem?

All Biotic members in a given area, interacting with each other, and also with abiotic factors.

7

What is the nutrient cycle?

The nutrient cycle is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into living matter.

8

Briefly describe the distribution of Tropical Rainforests.

- Found around the equator across the globe
- Examples:
- Amazon Rainforest (Brazil/S. America)
- The Congo Rainforest (Central Africa)

9

Briefly describe the climate of Tropical rainforests.

Precipitation:
- Decreases from January to August (before increasing again to December)
- Rainy seasons and dry seasons
- Sudden, heavy showers

Temperature:
- Remains mainly constant at 28 degrees C
- Very little fluctuation

10

Describe the Forest Floor.

- 25% of light
- 1-2 meters
- Insects/ snakes

11

Describe the shrub layer.

- 30% of Light
- 2-10 meters
- Densest part of the forest, full of shrubs like fan palms

12

Describe the Understory.

- 50% of light
- 10-20 meters
- Plants like Lianas grow on trees

13

Describe the The canopy.

-75% of light
- 20-30 meters
- Home to lots of birds and ochids

14

Describe the Emergent Layer.

- 100% of light
- 30< meters
- Top heavy trees with Macaws and Monkeys

15

Name 2 animals that have adapted to the Tropical Rainforest.

Macaw
- Sharp, hooked bill used to break nuts
- Flexible feet to gram onto thin branches

Sloth
- Strong claws to climb up tree trunks
- Eyes spaced apart to look for predators

16

Name 2 plants that have adapted to the Tropical Rainforest.

Fan Palm
- Large 'fan'-like leaves to absorb light
- Leaves can also catch more water
Lianas
- Vines that climb on a tree to get to light
- Roots are strong to cling onto vector

17

Name 3 Goods the TRF provides

1) Resources
2) Culture
3) Medical innovations

18

Name 3 Services the TRF provides

1) Biodiversity
2) Carbon Cycle
3) Water Cycle

19

Name the 5 sustainable management techniques.

1) Re-Planting
2) Agroforestry
3) Conservation
4) Debt Reduction
5) Eco-tourism

20

How does Re-planting work?

- Plants new trees where deforestation has occurred.
- 5-10% animal species regain strength
- 20 million new trees = 260 million tonnes of oxygen
-110,000 trees planted in Borneo

21

How does Agroforesty work?

- Crops are planted amongst trees
- Prevents erosion + protects ecosystems
- Used in the Serengeti National park

22

How does Conservation work?

- Groups help maintain natural areas
- 70% plants saved, and helps endangered species like the orangutan

23

How does Debt reduction work?

- Reduces the amount of debt a country owes so it can focus on conservation
- Reduces deforestation as well as poverty
- USA let Brazil not have to pay off $21 billion in 2010 to focus on conservation

24

How does Eco Tourism work?

- Tourists can visit areas where nature is prioritized, like carbon-neutral lodges.
- Educated on local culture + conservation
- It is more expensive than normal tourism

25

PALM OIL
What is palm oil used in?

Food oils, cosmetics and bio diesel. A very high yield. 1 ha produces 7 tonnes of oil.

26

PALM OIL
What is the problem with palm oil plantations? (arable farming)

- 90% global palm oil in Malaysia
- More CO2 present as there are less trees
- Plantations are less biodiverse

27

HEP AND OTHER ENERGY
What is the problem with HEP dams?

- Currently accounts for 5% of deforestation
- land flooded kills animals
- Clogged up with silt, making the useless

28

What resources does the TRF provide?
(goods)

- 137 plants + animals die/day
- 13 million ha used for logging per year

29

What culture does the TRF provide?
(goods)

- 1 million natives in the amazon
- 400 tribes

30

What medical innovations does the TRF provide?
(goods)

- 120 drugs come from plants
- 2100 plants in TRF used to cure cancer

31

What biodiversity does the TRF provide?
(Services)

- 10 million species live in the Rainforests
- Congo TRF has "extraordinary" diversity

32

How is the carbon cycle affected by the TRF?
(Services)

- Photosynthesis absorbs CO2

33

How is the water cycle affected by the TRF?
(Services)

-Trees release water and reduce flooding
- Trees suck up water from the ground
- Distant places are affected by the TRF

34

CATTLE RANCHING
Why is demand for beef increasing?

- Increased wealth and global population

35

CATTLE RANCHING
How many ranches are there on the Yanomami tribe's land?

1000 illegal ranches

36

CATTLE RANCHING
Where is the Yanomami tribe located?

Northern Brazil

37

CATTLE RANCHING
How many people live on the Xingu river?

6000 indigenous people

38

CATTLE RANCHING
What are some other problems with cattle ranching?

- Roads are constructed to transport cattle
- Ecosystems are disrupted

39

LOGGING
How much of the DRC is forest?

- 45% of DRC is forest

40

LOGGING
How many species of plants are there in the DRC?

11,000 species of plants in the DRC

41

LOGGING
How much of the DRC forest is proposed to be use for logging?

-90% (of 45%) is to be used for logging
- An area the size of France

42

MINERAL EXTRACTION
When did Ecuador announce that it was going to drill for oil?

2007

43

MINERAL EXTRACTION
Where is Ecuador planning to extract oil from?

The Yasuni National park, home to 100,000 species of insect.

44

MINERAL EXTRACTION
How many jobs will be created by Texaco?

- 250000 jobs created by Texaco