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Parasitology - Ectoparasites > Ectoparasiticides > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ectoparasiticides Deck (28)
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1

Why should ectoparasites be controlled?

Pet health (welfare, damage)
Owner health (dermatitis, bites, zoonoses)

2

What are 3 broad ways to control ectoparasites?

Broad spectrum ectoparasiticides
Integrated pest mangement (IPM)
Non-chemical use

3

How can broad spectrum ectoparasiticides be administered?

Parenteral - SC/IM
Oral
Topical - pour on, spot on, tags, collars

4

What is done for integrated pest management (IPM)?

Hygiene and management of breeding sites
Vacuuming/washing bedding
Removing ticks
Dagging/crutching (remove dirty wool from around anus)

5

What are examples of non-chemical use for ectoparasite control?

Protection of teats
Rugs (stripes)
Sticky tapes
Pheromones
Sugar baits

6

What are the 6 main classes of broad spectrum ectoparasiticides?

Organochlorides
Organophosphates
Synthetic pyrethroids
Macrocyclic lactones
Insect growth regulators
Isoxazolines

7

Which class of ectoparsiticide is now banned and why?

Organochlorides
Enivornmental impact

8

How do organophosphates work? What are they only used for now?

Bind to acetylcholinesterase
Build up of ACh = paralysis
Sheep dip

9

What is a disadvantage of organophosphates? Give an example of an OP

High toxicity to humans
Diazinon

10

How do synthetic pyrethroids work?

Excite cell membranes
Causes depolarisation and paralysis

11

What are the advantages of SPs?

Rapid kill - not residual
Low mammalian toxicity

12

How are SPs administered? Give 2 examples

Topical - skin
Permethrin, cypermethrin

13

Which SP should not be given to cats and why

Permethrin = toxic to cats

14

Macrocyclic lactones are used for both eco and exoparsites. What are the 2 groups and give an advantage of each. What breed is sensitive to one of these?

Avermectin - e.g. ivermectin (collies sensitive)
Milbemycin - e.g. moxidectin

15

How do MLs work? Why is this safe in animals?

Stimulate release of GABA
Hyperpolarisation and paralysis
GABA transmission confined to CNS and drug cannot cross BBB - safe to animal

16

How can MLs be administered?

Injection
Oral
Topical

17

Are MLs local acting or systemic?

Systemic - lipophilic so stored in fat, slow release

18

What is a disadvantage of MLs?

Long half life = residues in meat and milk

19

What are the 2 types of insect growth regulators? Give an example of each

Chitin inhibitors - cyromazine
Juvenile hormone analogues (keep immature) - methoprene

20

Isoxazolines are the newest class of drug. Are they local or systemic? are they absorbed fast or slow?

Systemic
Rapid absorption

21

How do isoxazolines work?

Act on GABA/glutamate receptors

22

What are the advantages of isoxazolines?

Fast acting
Lasts 1 month

23

Give an example of 2 isoxazolines?

Afoxolaner
Fluralaner

24

What are 3 other ectoparsitides that aren't in the broad spectrum categories?

Imidacloprid
Fipronil
Amitraz

25

How does imidacloprid work?

Binds to ACh receptors
Causes paralysis and death

26

In what animals is imidacloprid used? What is it effective against?

Companion animals
Flea adulticide - NOT ticks

27

How does fibronil work? What is an advantage of fipronil? What animals find fipronil toxic?

Block GABA transmitter
Highly lipophilic - long residual activity
Bees, fish

28

What is amitraz used for? Which species can it not be used in?

Ticks - cattle dogs
Not horses and cats as contraindications