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Flashcards in Edema Deck (34):
1

what is Edema?

Increased fluid within interstitial tissues

2

what are the 5 pathophysiological categories (causes) of Edema?

1) ↑ hydrostatic pressure, ↓ venous return
2) Reduced plasma osmotic pressure
3) Lymphatic obstruction
4) Sodium and water retention
5) Inflammation

3

what are the 2 forms of "generalized" edema?

anasarca (severe systemic edema)

hydrops (fetal edema)

4

what are the characteristics of transudate? exudate?

Transudate- low protein content, few cells

Exudate- High protein content, may contain white/red blood cells

5

what is effusion? give examples of forms of effusion

Effusion- collection of fluid in body cavity or space

Examples:
- Pleural
- Pericardial
- Peritoneal (ascites)
- joint space (synovial)

6

____________ is an increased tissue blood volume secondary to neurogenic mechanisms or inflammation (active)

Hyperemia

7

____________ is an increased tissue blood volume secondary to impaired venous return (passive)

congestion

8

congestion is caused by a blockage of blood ______

outflow

9

what is the difference between a Hematoma, Ecchymosis, Purpura and Petechia?

Hematoma, large mass of blood
Ecchymosis, >1 cm (bruise)
Purpura, 0.3-0.9 cm
Petechia, 1-2 MILLImeters (pinpoint)

10

what is a Hemmorage?

Loss of blood secondary to vessel injury or physical disruption

11

give examples of hemmorages into body spaces:

hemothorax, hemopericardium, hemarthrosis, hemoperitoneum

12

when does shock due to hemorrhaging occur?

during acute hemorrhage when > 20% of blood is lost

13

chronic hemorrhaging is called _____

anemia

14

what are the 3 major components of hemostasis?

1) endothelium

2) Platelets

3) Coagulation cascade

15

Exposure of basement membrane collagen will automatically binds free floating __________

vWF (von-willebrams factor)

16

what are the 3 phases to form a platelet plug?

Adhesion, secretion, aggregation

17

vWF will bind to what location on the surface of platelets to start adhesion?

glycoprotein 1B

18

what occurs during the secretion phase of platelet hemostasis?

1) platelets release ADP and Ca2+

2) expression of surface phospholipid (PL) complex

19

what is the Aggregation phase of platelets mediated by?

mediated by ADP, TXA2, and thrombin

20

what occurs when platelet fibrinogen binds to GP IIb-IIIa?

the platelet plug becomes cemented by fibrin.

21

the coagulation cascade is a series of _________ conversions

enzymatic

22

during the coagulation cascade, where does the calcium-active enzyme-cofactor-substrate unit function?

(in other words, where are the enzyme reactions taking place)

at the phospholipid complex on platelet membranes

23

what triggers the extrinsic coagulation cascade?

activated by tissue factor (thromboplastin)

24

what activates the intrinsic coagulation cascade?

Factor XII

25

______ and ______ are the final end-products of the coagulation cascade

fibrin and thrombin

26

Extrinsic and intrinsic both come together through factors ____ and _____ during coagulation

factors 9 and 10

27

__________ plays a role throughout the entire clotting cascade

thrombin

28

how does vasoconstriction play a role in regulating coagulation?

contraction of vessel walls creates a smaller size of exposure

29

what are the 4 stages of secondary hemostasis?

1) release of tissue factor
2) Phospholipid complex expression
3) Thrombin activation
4) Fibrin polymerization

30

what molecules are secreted to shut down the coagulation of platelets?

(during antithrombic counter-regulation)

PGI2

NO

ADPase

31

what molecules work together to stop the progression of fibrin clots?

Antithrombin III

Protein S (cofactor)

Protein C

thrombomodulin

32

what 2 molecules work to break down fibrin?

tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)

plasmin

33

protein C requires protein S in order to inactivate factors __________ and _________

factors 5a and 7a

34

how does thrombomodulin block the coagulation cascade?

It reduces blood coagulation by converting thrombin to an anticoagulant enzyme

- it is produced on the surface of endothelial cells