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Flashcards in Edith Hamilton Study Questions Deck (168):
1

Who was the king of the Titans who was overthrown by Zeus?

Cronus

2

What was Cronusʼ Latin name?

Saturn

3

After he was overthrown, what became of Cronus?

He fled to Italy

4

What is the reign of Saturn in Italy called?

The Golden Age

5

What was the name of the Titan that encircled the earth?

Oceanus

6

Who was the wife of Oceanus?

Tethys

7

What Titan was the father of the sun, moon, and dawn?

Hyperion

8

Which Titan who presided over memory is, in some versions of the story, the mother of Athena?

Mnemosyne

9

What Titan presided over justice?

Themis

10

What Titan was the father of Prometheus, Epimetheus,and Atlas?

Iapetus

11

Which child of Iapetus stole fire for mankind?

Prometheus

12

Which child of Iapetus had Pandora for a wife?

Epimetheus

13

Which child of Iapetus was condemned to hold up the heavens on his shoulders?

Atlas

14

On what mountain did the gods live?

Mt. Olympus

15

Name the twelve Olympians in Greek.

Zeus, Hera, Hestia, Poseidon, Hades, Ares, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Hermes, Hephaestus.

16

Name the twelve Olympians in Latin.

Jupiter, Neptune, Pluto, Juno, Vesta, Minerva, Diana, Apollo, Mars, Venus, Vulcan, Mercury.

17

Which of Zeusʼs sisters is not one of the twelve Olympians?

Demeter

18

What god of wine is not one of the twelve Olympians?

Dionysus

19

What was the aegis?

the breastplate of Zeus (often worn by Athena) on which she placed the Gorgonʼs head

20

Which god is sometimes called “Dis”?

Pluto

21

What does “Dis” mean?

rich

22

Although Apollo is often listed as god of the sun, what child of the Titan Hyperion is more accurately the sun god?

Helios

23

Who was the goddess of witchcraft and the dark side of the moon?

Hecate

24

Aphrodite is usually listed as the wife of Hephaestus. When she is not, which of the Graces is his wife?

Aglaia

25

Name the three Graces and the meaning for each name.

Aglaia (Splendor), Thalia (Good Cheer) and Euphrosyne (Mirth).

26

Name the 9 Muses and their fields.

Melpomene - tragedy, Thalia - comedy,Polyhymnia - songs to the gods, Terpsichore - dance, Clio - history, Urania - astronomy, Erato - love poetry, Calliope - epic poetry, and Euterpe - lyric poetry.

27

Name the 4 mountains of the Muses.

Helicon, Pierus, Olympus and Parnassus.

28

What god presided over underground rivers?

Poseidon

29

What sea godʼs name means “Deep Sea”?

Pontus

30

What sea god was known as the “Old Man of the Sea”?

Nereus

31

What were the 50 daughters of Nereus and Doris called?

Nereids

32

What kind of nymphs are nereids?

sea nymphs

33

What kind of nymphs are Oceanids?

Nymphs of the river Ocean

34

What kind of nymphs were dryads (hamadryads)?

tree nymphs

35

What kind of nymphs were naiads?

fresh water nymphs (springs and grottos)

36

What kind of nymphs were oreads?

mountain nymphs

37

What kind of nymphs were the Melias?

ash tree nymphs

38

Name the 5 rivers of the underworld.

Acheron - river of woe, Cocytus - river of lamentation, Styx - river of unbreakable oaths, Phlegethon - river of fire, and Lethe - river of forgetfulness.

39

Name the ferryman who carries souls across the river Styx

Charon

40

Name the three judges of the Underworld.

Minos, Rhadamanthus, and Aeacus.

41

Who were the godesses in the Underworld who punished unnatural crimes?

the Furies

42

What is another name for the Furies?

the Erinyes

43

What does “Erinyes” mean?

the “Appeased”.

44

Name the 3 Furies.

Tisiphone, Allecto, and Megaera

45

There are two gates in the Underworld. Name them.

the gate of ivory and the gate of horn.

46

What comes out of the gate of ivory?

false dreams

47

What comes out of the gate of horn?

true dreams

48

Castor and Pollux also became gods. Whom did they protect?

shipwrecked sailors

49

What deities were known as the Dioscuri and the Tyndaridae?

Castor and Pollux

50

What is the Greek form of Polluxʼs name?

Polydeuces

51

Dioscuri and Tyndaridae are patronymics, that is, they are words that name someoneʼs father. When Castor and Polydeuces are called the Dioscuri, who is the father named?

Zeus

52

When Castor and Polydeuces are called the Tyndaridae, who is the father named?

Tyndareus

53

What were the Sileni?

creatures part man, part horse, that walked on two legs, had horses hooves and tails and sometimes horsesʼ ears.

54

What is a satyr?

half man, half goat

55

Who was the King of the Winds?

Aeolus

56

Name the four major winds in Greek and Latin.

Zephyr or Favonius - West Wind; Notus or Auster - South Wind; Boreas or Aquilo - North Wind; Eurus - East Wind (Greek name is given first in this answer, followed by Latin. Eurus is the same in both)

57

What were centaurs?

creatures half man, half horse.

58

Name the three gorgons.

Stheno, Euryale, and Medusa

59

Which of the gorgons was mortal?

Medusa

60

Who killed Medusa?

Perseus

61

Who were the sisters of the gorgons who shared one eye and one tooth between them?

the Graiae

62

Who/what were the Sirens?

creatures with beautiful voices who lured sailors to their death

63

Name the 3 fates and the job of each.

Clotho - spun thread of human lifeLachesis - twisted and measured the threadAtropos - cut the thread of human life

64

Besides Bacchus, what Latin name was given to Dionysus?

Liber

65

Who was the Roman god of boundaries?

Terminus

66

Which Roman god was considered a strengthener of cattle?

Pales

67

Which Roman god was the helper of plowmen and woodcutters?

Sylvanus

68

Of what was Saturn the god?

Sowers and Seed

69

Who was the wife of Saturn and the “harvest helper”?

Ops

70

What is Opsʼ name in Greek?

Rhea

71

Who was Quirinus?

the deified Romulus

72

What were the Manes?

the spirits of the good dead in Hades

73

What were the Lemures?

spirits of the wicked dead

74

What nymphs of springs were the Roman equivalent to the Muses?

Camenae

75

Who was the Roman goddess of childbirth?

Lucina

76

Who was the mother of Persephone?

Demeter

77

Who kidnapped Persephone to make her his wife?

Hades

78

What young child did Demeter attempt to make immortal by annointing him with ambrosia and placing him in a hot fire?

Demophon

79

Who was Demophonʼs mother who snatched him from the flames?

Metaneira

80

Who was the husband of Metaneira and the father of Demophon?

Celeus

81

For how many months does Persephone remain in the Underworld?

4 months

82

Who were the parents of Dionysus?

Zeus and Semele

83

When offered any gift she named, what did Semele ask of Zeus?

To see him as lord of the sky

84

How was Dionysus saved from his burning mother?

Zeus sewed him up in his thigh

85

What nymphs cared for the infant Dionysus?

the Hyades or the nymphs of Nysa

86

Into what did Dionysus change the pirates who tried to capture him?

Dolphins

87

What were the followers of Bacchus called?

Maenads or Bacchantes

88

What king of Thebes was torn apart by his own mother when she was infected with the madness of Dionysus?

Pentheus

89

What Theban princess killed her son under the influence of Dionysus?

Agave

90

What three deities were worshipped at Eleusis?

Demeter, Persephone, and Dionysus

91

Who were the two children of Chaos?

Erebus and Night

92

Who was the child of Erebus and Night?

Love (Eros)

93

What two creatures arose from Love?

Light and Day

94

Who was Father Heaven?

Ouranos (Uranus)

95

Who was Mother Earth?

Ge (Gaea)

96

What monsters, the children of Uranus and Gaea, were giants with only one eye in the middle of their foreheads?

the Cyclopes

97

How many Cyclopes were there origially?

3

98

What does “Cyclops” mean?

wheel-eyed

99

What were the hecatoncheires?

giants with a hundred hands and 50 heads, children of Uranus and Gaea

100

Who were the parents of the Titans?

Uranus and Gaea

101

Which of his children did Uranus bury in the earth?

the hecatoncheires

102

What Titan avenged the hecatoncheires by castrating his father?

Cronus

103

What monsters sprang from the blood of the wounded Uranus?

the Giants and the Furies

104

Who was the youngest child of Cronus and Rhea?

Zeus

105

To what island did Rhea smuggle Zeus to prevent his being swallowed by his father?

Crete

106

What monsters, released from their prison by Zeus, helped Zeus defeat the Titans?

hecatoncheires

107

What Titan was condemned to hold up the heavens on his shoulders?

Atlas

108

What monster was the last created by Gaea?

Typhon

109

What hero helped the gods when the Giants later rebelled against the Olympians?

Hercules

110

What sea was called both the Axine and the Euxine Sea by the Greeks?

the Black Sea

111

What does Axine mean?

Unfriendly

112

What does Euxine mean?

Friendly

113

What does Prometheus mean?

Forethought

114

What does Epimetheus mean?

Afterthought

115

Which Titan created man?

Epimetheus (Prometheus finished the job)

116

Which Titan gave fire to mankind?

Prometheus

117

What are the five ages of man?

The golden age, silver age, bronze age, age of heroes, iron age

118

Who was the first woman in Greek mythology?

Pandora

119

What does Pandora mean?

“gift of all”

120

For what crimes was Prometheus chained to the Caucasus?

for refusing to reveal to Zeus the name of the mother of the child that would dethrone him and for stealing fire.

121

What bird ate at Prometheusʼ liver each day?

an eagle

122

Who killed the eagle and set Prometheus free?

Hercules

123

When the human race was destroyed by the Great Flood, who were the only two humans to survive?

Deucalion and Pyrrha

124

Who was the father of Deucalion?

Prometheus

125

Who were the parents of Pyrrha?

Epimetheus and Pandora

126

How were Deucalion and Pyrrha instructed to restore the human race?

To throw their motherʼs bones behind their backs. The bones were the stones and they were changed into men and women.

127

Who predicted to Prometheus that he would be released from his chains by one of ther descendants?

Io

128

Into what had Zeus changed Io?

a cow or heifer

129

To whom had Hera given Io for save-keeping?

Argus

130

What was unusual about Argus?

He had 100 eyes and never closed all of them at once.

131

Who killed Argus and took Io?

Hermes

132

What story did Hermes tell Argus to lull him to sleep?

The love story of Pan and Syrinx

133

Into what was Syrinx changed?

reeds

134

What creature sent by Hera drove Io mad?

a gadfly

135

What sea is named after Io?

Ionian Sea

136

What body of water is named for the fact that Io crossed it?

the Bosphorus

137

What does Bosphorus mean?

Cow Ford

138

Jacksonvilleʼ s original name was Cow Ford. What would that be in Greek?

Bosphorus

139

Io was returned to human form when she reached what body of water?

the Nile

140

Who changed Io back into a human?

Zeus

141

Who was the son of Io and Zeus?

Epaphus

142

Whom did Zeus seduce in the guise of a bull?

Europa

143

Europa was a princess of what city?

Sidon

144

Where did Zeus take Europa (a land, not a continent)?

Crete

145

Who were Europaʼs sons by Zeus who became judges of the dead?

Minos and Rhadamanthys

146

Which monsters did Zeus not banish from the earth after he conquered them?

the Cyclops

147

What Greek hero, returning from the Trojan War, encountered a Cyclops?

Odysseus

148

What was the name of the Cyclops encountered by Odysseus?

Polyphemus

149

How did Odysseus and his men escape from Polyphemus?

they blinded him and then tied themselves to the undersides of his sheep. The sheep carried them from the cave.

150

What did Odysseus originally tell Polyphemus his name was?

“No Man”

151

What gift had Polyphemus promised Odysseus?

to eat him last

152

With what nymph did Polyphemus fall in love?

Galatea

153

What youth did Galatea prefer to Polyphemus?

Acis

154

Who killed Acis?

Polyphemus

155

Into what was Acis changed?

a river god

156

What goddess punished Echo by taking away her voice?

Juno

157

Why was Juno angry with Echo?

Because Echoʼs chattering kept her from noticing the affairs of Jupiter

158

With what youth did Echo fall in love?

Narcissus

159

With whom did Narcissus fall in love?

his reflection

160

Into what flower was Narcissus changed?

the narcissus

161

What god accidentally killed the youth Hyacinthus?

Apollo

162

What game were Apollo and Hyacinthus playing when Hyacinthus was killed?

discus

163

Into what flower was Hyacinthus changed?

the hyacinth

164

In another version of the story, a jealous wind god kills Hyacinthus. Which one?

Zephyr

165

Which two goddesses loved Adonis?

Aphrodite and Persephone

166

What youth spent half a year in the underworld with Persephone and half a year with Aphrodite?

Adonis

167

How did Adonis die?

He was gored by a boar

168

What flower grew from the blood of Adonis?

the red anemone (windflower)