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Sociology > Education > Flashcards

Flashcards in Education Deck (46):

Why do we need education?

-So we're smart.
-Chance for a good future.
-To get skills for jobs and life.
-To communicate with others.
-Teaches you how to behave properly.
-To make friends.


What is Education?

-Acquiring knowledge and skills.


What is a Formal Education?

-Learning specific skills in organised institutions e.g. schools and college.


What is an Informal Education?

-Learning through life experiences and others.


What is Social Control?

-To follow roles i.e. obeying teachers.


What is Serving the Economies Needs?

-knowing what you need to be able to get a job.


What is Social Mobility?

-The ability to move between classes by what school taught you and making sure you get far in life.


What is Social Cohesion?

-The norms and Values that are agreed on by school and culture i.e. people from Britain drink a lot of tea.


What are the Economic Perspectives?

Functionalists: - Schools teach children skills to help them get future jobs.

Marxist: - Working class children learn low level skills, therefore low paid jobs.


What are the Selective Perspectives?

Functionalists: - Students who work the hardest get the best grades.

Marxists: - Rich students can pay for advantages to help them achieve highly e.g. tutors.


What are the Socialisation Perspectives?

Functionalists: - All the children learn shared values and togetherness.

Marxists: - Children learn to 'know their place' and social class in society.


What are the Social Control Perspectives?

Functionalist: - Students learn the importance of rules and punctuality.

Marxist: - Students are trained o do as their told by authority figures.


What are the Political Perspectives?

Functionalist: - Children are taught to take part in society e.g. citizenship.

Marxist: - Any radical political views are rejected to prevent change.


What is the history of education?

1870: Education made compulsory and free.

1880: Education made compulsory until 10.

1918: Education made compulsory until 14.

1944: 3 different school types, Technical, Academic and The Rest. Education made compulsory until 15. eleven plus exam at the end of primary school.

1965: One school for all students. Labour in power.

1979: New Vocationalism introduced: new skills for the economy.

1988: Marketisation - choice in school, schools compete.


When was New Labour?

-1997 until 2010.


What is the Education Action Zone (EAZ)?

-A group that help out schools in the poorest areas.


What is the Educational Maintenance Allowance (EMA)?

-Helped out teens by giving them £30 a week so they could go to college.


What were the Conservative changes?

-Education is compulsory until 18.
-All GCSE exams and A Levels are done at the end of the course (changed in 2014)
-Marks are given for spelling and grammar in more subjects.
- Free schools, anyone can create and run a school.


What happened in the 1988 Educational Reform Act?

-National Curriculum: Set of subjects that all schools have to teach.

-Ofstead created: Inspection reports available to parents.


Describe the exams created in 2008.

-SATs: Continue at ages 7 and 11 but stopped the 14.
-Diplomas: Introduced for 14-19 year olds.


What are State funded Comprehensive schools?

-Educate all students, no matter what their ability.


What are Specialist schools?

-Receive funding to raise standards for schools with special needs.


What are Trust schools?

-Funded by charities.Schools and partners work together.


What are City Academies?

-ofstead close down under performing schools and make them city academies.


What are City Technology Colleges?

-Independently managed, non-fee paying schools in urban areas.


What are Faith schools?

-Focus on one religion, but teach the same as state schools.


What are Special schools?

-For children special needs.


What are Grammar schools?

-Select pupils based on academic abilities.


What are Independent schools?

-They set the own curriculum and administration policies.
-They are funded by fees from the parents.


What is a Hidden Curriculum?

-What is indirectly learnt at school, e.g. rules and discipline.


What is a Formal Curriculum?

-The subjects taught at school e.g. english


What is Structure/Hierarchy?

-Schools have a hierarchy, e.g. Headteachers are the top, Students are the bottoms.
-This prepares them for later life.


What is Gender role allocation?

-Teachers may treat girls and boys differently and expect them to behave differently.


What is the Obedience Perspective?

Functionalist: Develop shared arms and values, which benefits society.

Marxist: Students are trained to do what they're told, like monkeys.


What is the Hierarchy Perspective?

Functionalist: Taches students that role of authority and prepares them for further life.

Marxist: Makes students too obedient and holds them back.


What is the Competition Perspective?

Functionalist: Makes students good losers and challenge themselves.

Marxist: Encourages student rivalry.


What is Labelling?

-when a teacher gives a label to a student which ca influence how they are treated and may also affect their behaviour.


What is a Self-fulfilling Prophecy?

-When students starts to believe the labels the are given, so they start to play the role.


What is Streaming?

-Students being divided on ability e.g. high or low ability.


What os Setting?

Students are divided into groups for different classes based on the their ability e.g. set 1,2,3,4.


What are Internal Factors?

-Inside school.
-Racism in schools.
-Teacher/pupil interaction
-'Ethnocentric' curriculums (topic assemblies, culture e.g. English Lit is aimed at the white British and only 13% of the population isn't white British.)


What are External Factors?

-Outside school.


What effect do subcultures or peer groups have?

-Peer pressure.
-Students follow the norms and values of their peer groups, so peer pressure can affect their attitude for education.


What was Wright 1992?

-Asian children may face discriminations some teachers assume about their language difficulties/abilities.


What was Gillbom and Yondell 2000?

- Some teachers attitudes cause some ethnic minority students to be placed into lower sets and to be entered into lower level exams.


What are Differential Educational Achievement (DEA)?

They are based on:
-Social class.