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Flashcards in Educational Organisations in their Environment Deck (30):
1

Who came up with the idea of a 100% solution? 

Ouchi (2003) 

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2

In what context was Bourdieu (1986) writing?

Idea often applied to educational systems although not explicitly written with that in mind. Concept of 'conversion' between different forms of capital viewed as important.

3

In what two ways did Levacic (1997) view the external environment?

  1. General environment (social, political, economic)
  2. Task environment (i.e. parents and local community)

4

Who viewed the external environment in these two ways:

  1. General environment (social, political, economic)
  2. Task environment (i.e. parents and local community)

Levacic (1997)

5

What was Baker and Elmer's criticism of the 65% solution?

Didn't work - just for political gain

6

What context was the 100% solution meant for?

USA

7

Who discuss the 100% and 65% solutions?

Baker and Elmer (2009)

8

Ouchi (2003) cited by Baker and Elmer (2009) cited what sort of reform?

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100% solution

9

What is a decentralised finance system?

Where responsibility is delegated to the school.

10

What idea did Tim Mooney come up with?

65% solution

11

What is a rational system according to Scott?

Goal pursuing organisation e.g. Ofsted

12

Who said that organisations should meet the needs of stakeholders in order to survive?

Butler 1991

13

What is an open system according to Scott?

An organisation which is dependent on its external environment and exists to satisy shareholders.

14

In what two ways can educational outcomes be viewed?

Societal and personal

15

What is a centralised finance system?

Where an authority beyond the school controls resource allocation.

16

In what context was Scott writing?

American. Sociologist. Scope of research was broad. Schools were looked at, though not individually. Research still respected and referenced today.

17

In what context was Levacic (1997) writing?

Universally applicable ideas but with British context in mind.

18

In what context was Butler (1991) writing?

Writing about organisations generally - not specifically schools.

19

Scott (1987) views organisations in three ways. What are they?

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  1. Rational system
  2. Natural system
  3. Open system

20

What is a natural system according to Scott?

An organisation which serves human needs.

21

What was Butler's (1991) view of organisations?

They should meet the needs of their stakeholders in order to survive.

22

What did the 65% solution mean?

65% of spending had to be spent on the classroom

23

Bourdieu (1986) talks about educational capital in three ways....

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  1. Economic
  2. Social
  3. Cultural

24

Who came up with the idea of the 65% solution?

Tim Mooney

25

Who viewed systems as rational, open or natural?

Scott (1987)

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26

Who talked about educational capital in these terms?

  1. Economic
  2. Social
  3. Cultural

Bourdieu (1986)

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27

What is the 100% solution sometimes also called?

Weighted student forumla

28

What is the difference between outcomes and output?

Outcomes = lasting qualities

 

Output = immediate gains by students

29

What are the three elements of an input-outcome model?

  1. External environment (where the schools gets its raw materials - students)
  2. Processes (moving the organisation from learning resources to a learning environment)
  3. Human relations system (giving feedback to the external environment)

30

What was Baker and Elmer's (2009) criticism of the 100% solution?

Under-researched