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Flashcards in EKG Deck (43):
1

What is the charge of the resting cardiac cell?

negative

2

What ions can be found inside and outside the resting cardiac cell?

Potassium - inside
Sodium - outside

3

What term describes when a cardiac cell becomes positively charged?

Depolarization

4

By what process are cardiac cells returned to a negative state?

Sodium-potassium pump, an active transport system

5

On an ekg, what represents atrial depolarization?

P wave

6

On an ekg, what represents ventricular depolarization?

QRS complex

7

On an ekg what represents ventricular repolariazation?

T wave

8

What is the flat line between the P wave and QRS complex?

PR interval

9

What is the flat line between the QRS complex and T wave?

ST Segment

10

List the pathway of the conduction system?

Sinus node > Interatrial tracts > atrium > internodal tracts > AV node > bundle of His > bundle branches > Purkinje fivers > Ventricles

11

Where is the SA node located?

upper right atrium just beneath the opening of the superior vena cava

12

List four characteristics of cardiac cells

Automaticity
Conductivity
Excitability
Contractility

13

What is the inherent rate of the sinus node?

60-100 beats per minute

14

What is the inherent rate of the AV junction?

40-60 beats per minute

15

What is the inherent rate of the Ventricle?

20-40 beats per minute

16

What leads can be seen in the first column of a 12 lead EKG?

Leads I, II, III

17

What leads can be seen in the second column of a 12 lead EKG?

aVR, aVL, aVF

18

What leads can be seen in the third column of a 12 lead EKG?

V1, V2, V3

19

What leads can be seen in the fourth column of a 12 lead ekg?

V4, V5, V6

20

What is the normal PR interval?

0.12 to 0.20 seconds

21

How is the PR interval measured?

From the beginning of the P wave to the beginning of the QRS

22

What should the P wave measure?

no more than 0.10 seconds

23

What is the normal QRS interval?

0.12 seconds

24

How much time does a single small block on ekg paper represent?

0.4 seconds

25

What term describes when a cardiac cell cannot respond to another impulse no matter how strong?

Absolute refractory period

26

How much time does a big block on ekg paper represent?

.20 seconds

27

how many big blocks on ekg paper represent a second?

5

28

On what plane do limb leads read the heat's current?

frontal (top to bottom/right to left)

29

What plane do the precordial leads read the heart's current?

horizontal plane

30

What are the augmented leads?

aVR
aVL
aVF

31

Which limb leads should have positive QRS complexes?

I, II, III, aVL and aVF

32

Which limb leads should have negative QRS complexes?

aVR

33

Which precordial leads should have negative QRS complexes?

V1 and V2

34

Which precordial leads should have positive QRS complexes?

V5 and V6

35

Wich precordial leads should be isoelectric?

V3 and V4

36

What does aV stand for?

Augmented voltage

37

What is the five steps to rhythm interpretation?

1) Are there QRS complexes and are they the same shape?
2) What's the regularity?
3) Whats the heart rate?
4) Are there P waves? are they the same shape? in the same place relative to QRS?
5) PR and QRS interval

38

Normal sinus rhythm characteristics:

QRS narrow, uniform shape
Regular
Heart rate 60-100
Upright uniform shape P waves married to the QRS
PR 0.12-0.20 sec, constant QRS <0.12 secs

39

What can deviation of the QRS axis indicate?

chamber enlargement, MI, and origin of some arrhythmia

40

Which two leads are examined to use the quadrant approach to determine the axis?

Lead I
aVF

41

When using the quadrant approach to determine axis, what would you expect to see with a normal axis?

Positive QRS in Lead I and aVF

42

When using the quadrant approach to determine axis, what would you expect to see in a right axis deviation?

Negative Lead I
Positive aVF

43

When using the quadrant approach to determine axis, what would you expect to see in a left axis deviation?

Positive Lead I
Negative aVF