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Flashcards in Elbow Deck (15):
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Elbow
~ Joint Specifics

Compound Joint (3 bones articulate)
Uniaxial: Flexion / Extension around x-axis
Hinge Joint
ROM 140-150 Flexion / 0 Extension

1

Elbow: Articulating Surfaces

Trochlear Ridge (Ulna) - Trochlear Groove (Humerus)
Radial Head - Capitulo-trochlear groove
Full Flexion:
Rim of Radial Head - Radial Fossa
Coronoid Process - Coronoid Fossa (Humerus)
Full Extension:
Olecranon Process in Olecranon Fossa

2

Elbow:
Ligaments

1. Medial Collateral (aka Ulnar Collateral): resists valgus/medially directed forces
2. Lateral Collateral (aka Radial Collateral): resists varus/laterally directed forces

Carrying Angle: 10-15 (Cubital valgus)

3

Radioulnar Joint
Articulating Surfaces, ROM

1. Proximal: Radial Head pivots in radial notch
2. Distal: Sigmoid Notch (aka Ulnar Notch) moves over Ulnar Head

Uniaxial Pivot joint: Supination, Pronation: y-axis
ROM 80-90. Forearm Neutral 0

4

Radioulnar Joint
Ligaments

Proximal:
Annular
Quadrate
Oblique

Distal:
Anterior and Posterior R-U Ligaments
Interosseous Membrane

5

Elbow Muscles:
Flexors (4)
Extensors (2)

Weak Flexors (4)
Extensors

Flexors:
Biceps
Brachialis (workhorse)
Brachioradialis
Pronator Teres

Extensors
Triceps
Anconeous

Weak Forearm Flexors
Flexor Carpi Radialis
Palmaris Longus
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris
Extensors:
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis

6

Brachialis

Anterior Distal 2/3 of Humerus - Ulnar Tuberosity
One Joint - Spurt Muscle (Mobility)

7

Biceps Brachii

Long Head: Supraglenoid Tubercle of Scap
Short Head: Coracoid Process of Scap
Insert: Radial Tuberosity, Bicipital Aponeurosis
Two-joint Muscle: Flexes Elbow and Shoulder
Less active when forearm is pronated
Active Insufficiency: flexed elbow and shoulder
Shunt @ Shoulder, Spurt @ Elbow

8

Brachioradialis

Lateral Supracondylar Ridge - Radial Tuberosity
Shunt Muscle (origin close to joint, insertion further away = stability)
Elbow Flexor, but better when forearm neutral

9

Pronator Teres

Two Heads:
Medial Supracondylar Head
Coranoid Process of Ulna
Attaches Anterior Surface, but Lateral Side of Radius
Elbow Flexion + Pronation

10

Triceps

Long: Infraglenoid Tubercle
Lateral: Proximal 2/3 of Humerus
Medial: Distal 2/3 of Humerus
Posterior Olecranon of Ulna
Active Insufficiency: Elbow + Shoulder Extension

11

Anconeous

Posteriorly Situated: Stabilizes Joint
In Extension, pulls on Joint Capsule to get it out of the way
Lateral Humeral Condyle - courses medially to - Lateral Portion of Olecranon Process, and adjacent proximal quarter of posterior ulna.

12

Pronator Quadratus

Primary Pronator
O: Distal Anterior 1/4 Ulna
I: Distal 1/4 of Radius

13

Supinators: Biceps + Supinator

Supinator: 2 Heads
Lateral Epicondyle
Supinator Crest (Posterior Dorsal Ulna)
Insertion: lateral Proximal Portion of Radius
Supinators are stronger than Pronators
Test Supinator: Elbow complete extension (removes biceps)
Biceps most powerful when elbow @ 90

14

Synergies (2)

1. Biceps + Pronator Teres w/ Triceps: Stabilize @ elbow, so elbow flexion does not occur
2. Biceps @ elbow only, not Shoulder - Posterior Deltoid contracts to prevent shoulder flexion.