Elbow, Cubital Fossa, & Forearm Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Unit 1 > Elbow, Cubital Fossa, & Forearm > Flashcards

Flashcards in Elbow, Cubital Fossa, & Forearm Deck (56):
1

What is the proximal boundary of the cubital fossa?

The line that transverses between the epicondyles

2

What is the medial boundary of the cubital fossa?

The pronator teres

3

What is the lateral boundary of the cubital fossa?

The brachioradialis muscle

4

What is the distal boundary of the cubital fossa?

The junction between brachioradialis and pronator teres

5

What is the floor of the cubital fossa?

The brachialis muscle before it attaches to the ulnar tuberosity, and the supinator muscle as it arises from supinator crest of ulna before passing posterior to proximal radius

6

What is the roof of the cubital fossa?

The antebrachial fascia,
cephalic vein laterally and basilic vein medially
median cubital vein connects cephalic / basilic veins
medial and lateral cutaneous nerves of forearms
bicipital aponeurosis (continuous with antebrachial fascia medially)

7

What are the contents of the cubital fossa?

TAN - Tendon of biceps, brachial Artery, median Nerve. From lateral to medial

8

What are the posterior and anterior compartments of the forearm defined by?

Posterior - radial nerve or its branches
Anterior - median or ulnar nerves.
Radius and ulna connected by interosseus membrane

Posterior kinda wraps around the radius because of the continuation of the lateral intermuscular septum from the arm

9

Where do all of the superficial muscles of the anterior forearm originate from?

Common flexor tendon which attaches to medial epicondyle of humerus

10

Where does the median nerve exit the cubital fossa?

Passing between the two heads of the pronator teres (it has an ulnar and humeral head)

11

Where does the ulnar nerve enter the forearm?

Passing between the two heads of the flexor carpi ulnaris

12

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the pronator teres?

Origin: Humeral head from common flexor tendon, ulnar head from medial side of coronoid process
Insertion: Lateral surface of radius, mid-shaft
Innervation: Median nerve
Pronates arm, weakly flexes it via humeral head

13

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the flexor carpi radialis (FCR)?

Origin: Common flexor tendon
Insertion: base of metacarpals II and III (attaches towards radial side of carpi bones)
Innervation: Median nerve
Flexes and abducts hand at wrist

14

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the palmaris longus?

Origin: Common flexor tendon
Insertion: Palmar aponeurosis
Innervation: Median nerve
Flexes hand at wrist

15

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU)?

Origin: Humeral head from common flexor tendon. Ulnar head from olecranon / posterior ulna
Insertion: Base of metacarpal V, hamate, and pisiform
Innervation: Ulnar nerve
Flexes and adducts hand at wrist

16

Where does the median nerve go after it passes through the two heads of the pronator teres?

It passes deep to the humero-ulnar head of flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), along with ulnar artery

17

What is the intermediate muscle layer of the anterior compartment?

Just the FDS. Innervated by median nerve

18

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS)?

Origin: Humero-ulnar head from medial epicondyle and adjacent margin of coronoid process, radial head from oblique line of radius
Insertion: Intermediate phalanges of digits II-V
Innervation: Median nerve
Action - Flexes intermediate phalanx, also causes flexion at metacarpophalangeal and wrist joints

19

What muscles are in the deep muscle layer of the anterior compartment?

Flexor Pollicis Longus (FPL), Flexor Digitorum Profundus (FDP), and Pronator Quadratus

20

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the flexor pollicis longus (FPL)?

Origin: Anterior surface of radius and radial half of interosseous membrane
Insertion: Base of distal phalanx of thumb
Innervation: Median nerve (anterior interosseous nerve)
Action: Flexes distal phalanx of thumb, can also cause flexion at metacarpophalangeal joint of thumb

21

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP)?

Origin: Anterior and medial surface of ulna, medial half of interosseous membrane (just medial to in FPL origin)
Insertion: Distal phalanx of digits II-V
Innervation: Lateral half by median nerve (anterior interosseous nerve) and medial half by ulnar nerve
Flexes distal phalanx of digits II-V, also causes flexion at metacarpophalangeal and wrist joint

22

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the pronator quadratus?

Origin: distal anterior surface of ulna
Insertion: distal anterior surface of radius
Innervation: Median nerve (anterior interosseous nerve)
Pronates the forearm

23

What does the brachial artery divide into within the cubital fossa?

The ulnar and radial arteries

24

What does the ulnar artery give off and what does that become?

It gives off the common interosseous artery laterally, which splits into the anterior and posterior interosseous arteries

25

Where does the radial artery run?

It runs to the deep surface of the brachioradialis muscle, splitting from the brachial artery in the cubital fossa

26

Where does the ulnar artery go after it splits into the common interosseous artery?

It runs with the median nerve deep and between the two heads of the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS). The two heads are the oblique line of the radius and the medial epicondyle / adjacent margin of coronoid process

27

Where does the radial nerve split into deep and superficial branches?

Adjacent to the cubital fossa. Superficial branch goes superficially over the supinator muscle but deep to the brachioradialis and runs with the radial artery (strictly cutaneous function). The deep branch enters the supinator muscle.

28

Where does the median nerve split?

It gives off a branch of anterior interosseous nerve near the apex of the cubital fossa before the median nerve passes between the heads of the pronator teres

29

Where does the anterior interosseous nerve run?

After splitting from the median nerve near the apex of the cubital fossa, it runs between the heads of the pronator teres, deep to the FDS and superficially to the FDP and FPL

30

Where does the ulnar nerve pass?

Between the two heads of the FCU, runs between FCU and FDP and also relates next to the ulnar artery (recall this just gave off the common interosseous artery)

31

Where does the superficial muscle layer of the posterior compartment arise from?

The common extensor tendon, which attaches to the lateral epicondyle.

32

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the brachioradialis muscle?

Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge
Insertion: Lateral distal radius
Innervation: Radial nerve
Action: Flexor of forearm

33

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the anconeus?

Origin: Lateral epicondyle
Insertion: Olecranon and posterior surface of ulna (same as the ulnar head of FCU)
Innervation: Radial nerve
Action: Accessory extension of forearm
Think about pulling the olecranon towards the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, thus opposing any flexion

34

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL)?

Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge
Insertion: Base of metacarpal II (index finger)
Innervation: Radial nerve
Action: Extends and abducts the hand at the wrist joint

35

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB)?

Origin: Common extensor tendon
Insertion: Base of metacarpals II and III
Innervation: Deep radial nerve
Action: Extends and abducts the hand at the wrist joint

36

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the extensor carpi ulnar(ECU)?

Origin: Common extensor tendon and all along posterior ulna
Insertion: Base of metacarpal V
Innervation: Posterior interosseous nerve (radial nerve)
Extends and adducts the hand at the wrist joint

37

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the extensor digitorum?

Origin: Common extensor tendon (from lateral epicondyle)
Insertion: Extensor hoods of digits II-V
Innervation: Posterior interosseous nerve (radial nerve)
Extends digits II-V

38

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the extensor digiti minimi?

Origin: Common extensor tendon (from lateral epicondyle)
Insertion: Extensor hoods of digit V
Innervation: Posterior interosseous nerve (radial nerve)
Extends digit V

39

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the supinator muscle?

Origin: Superficial part from lateral epicondyle
Deep part from supinator crest laterally on ulna
Insertion: Lateral proximal radius
Innervation: Deep radial nerve
Forearm supination

40

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the extensor indicis?

Origin: Posterior surface of ulna distal to EPL and adjacent interosseous membrane
Insertion: Dorsal hood of digit II
Innervation: Radial nerve (posterior interosseous nerve)
Extends digit II (index finger)

41

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the extensor pollicis longus (EPL) muscle?

Origin: Posterior surface of ulna distal to APL and adjacent interosseous membrane
Insertion: Distal phalanx of thumb (longus so farthest away)
Innervation: Radial nerve (posterior interosseous nerve)
Extends distal phalanx of thumb, can also cause some extension at previous two joints

42

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the extensor pollicis brevis (EBL) muscle?

Origin: Posterior surface of RADIUS distal to APL and adjacent interosseous membrane
Insertion: Proximal phalanx of thumb
Innervation: Radial nerve (posterior interosseous nerve)
Extends proximal thumb phalanx at metacarpophalangel joint, secondary action at carpometacarpal joint

43

What are the origin, insertion, innervation, and action of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) muscle?

Origin: Posterior surfaces of ulna and radius, proximal to EPL and EBL, as well as adjacent interosseous membrane
Insertion: Lateral base of metacarpal I (thumb)
Innervation: Radial nerve (posterior interosseous nerve)
abducts thumb at carpometacarpal joint

44

What is the main blood supply to the posterior compartment of the forearm?

Posterior interosseous artery, a branch of the common interosseous artery. Accompanies the posterior interosseous nerve

45

What is the posterior interosseous nerve?

It is the renaming of the deep branch of the radial nerve after it passes through the two heads of the supinator muscle

46

What is the posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm?

It is another name for the superficial branch of the radial nerve, provides cutaneous sensation to lateral forearm

47

Where do the condyles attaches with the ulna anteriorly?

In the trochlear notch of the ulna anteriorly, between the trochlea and the capitulum. The coronoid process of the ulna sits in the coronoid fossa of the humerus when fully flexed

48

What is the posterior proximal attachment of the elbow joint capsule?

The olecranon fossa

49

What are the distal attachments of the elbow joint capsule?

Trochlear notch and annular ligament

50

What is the anterior proximal attachment of the elbow joint capsule?

Supper margins of the coronoid and radial fossa

51

What is the function of the annular ligament?

Surrounds the neck of the radius and attaches to the ulna. It is the distal attachment of the elbow joint capsule

52

Where does the radial collateral ligament run?

From lateral epicondyle to annular ligament

53

Where does the ulnar collateral ligament run? Why is it important?

From medial epicondyle to medial edge of trochlear notch. This is the site of tommy john's surgery

54

Where does the olecranon bursa sit?

Between the insertion of the riceps brachii and the olecranon process

55

What is the intermediate radioulnar joint?

A fibrous joint formed by the interosseous membrane

56

What makes up the distal radioulnar joint?

It is a small joint closed off by an articular disc attached to the ulnar notch of the radius and to the base of the ulnar styloid process