Flashcards in Elbow Examination Deck (33):
As with any examination, how should we begin?
-Wash hands, introduce self, confirm pt deets
-Expose and position pt appropriately
What is the first step?
LOOK at the joint
Where should the joint be inspected from?
Anteriorly, from either side, and posteriorly.
What may be visible from any angle on inspection?
What may swelling or erythema of the joint indicate?
An acute injury, inflammatory or septic arthritis, or cellulitis
What is the carrying angle?
The angle difference between the forearm and the arm, usually 5-15 degrees
What is cubitis valgus deformity?
Where the forearm is deviated away from the body more than normal
What is a common cause of cubitis valgus deformity?
What is cubitis varus deformity?
Where the forearm deviates towards the midline of the body
What is the most common cause of cubitis varus deformity?
Malunion of a supracondylar humerus fracture from childhood
What positioning deformity may be observed from the side of the elbow?
Fixed flexion deformity
What is the usual cause of fixed flexion deformity?
What may be observed on the medial aspect of the elbow?
What may be the cause of firm lumps on the elbow?
Rheumatoid nodules) - indicate systemic rheumatoid disease
What other skin changes may be observed on the elbow posteriorly?
What do psoaritic plaques look like?
Pink/red elevated lesion with silvery scale
What 2 things do we feel or on palpation?
What landmarks do we palpate in the elbow?
-The radial head/lateral epicondyle
What should palpation of landmarks achieve?
Eliciting any localised tenderness
What will be the case with 1) biceps tendonitis, and 2) biceps tendon rupture?
1) It will be painul to supinate against resistance
2) Supination against resistance will be weak
How should movement be assessed?
First actively, then passively
What should be felt for when moving the joint?
Which 4 movements are tested in the elbow?
Flexion and extension o the elbow, and pronation and supination of the forearm.
What is the normal range of movement in elbow flexion?
What is the normal range of movement in elbow extension?
What is the normal range of movement in forearm pronation and supination?
What 2 special tests can be done on the elbow?
Medial epicondylitis test, and lateral epicondylitis test.
What is medial epicondylitis also called?
What is lateral epicondylitis also called?
How is Golfer's elbow tested for?
Active wrist flexion against resistance. Stabilise the pts elbow and firmly palpate the medial epicondyle. Resist the flexion of the wrist with other hand.
How is Tennis elbow tested for?
Active wrist extension against resistance. Stabilise the pts elbow and firmly palpate the lateral epicondyle. Resist the extension of the wrist with other hand.
What is a positive sign in tennis and golfers elbow tests?
Pain elicited when this combination of actions is performed.