Elbow Examination Flashcards Preview

MSK Examinations > Elbow Examination > Flashcards

Flashcards in Elbow Examination Deck (33):
1

As with any examination, how should we begin?

-Wash hands, introduce self, confirm pt deets
-Explain examination
-Gain consent
-Expose and position pt appropriately

2

What is the first step?

LOOK at the joint

3

Where should the joint be inspected from?

Anteriorly, from either side, and posteriorly.

4

What may be visible from any angle on inspection?

-Scars
-Swelling
-Erythema

5

What may swelling or erythema of the joint indicate?

An acute injury, inflammatory or septic arthritis, or cellulitis

6

What is the carrying angle?

The angle difference between the forearm and the arm, usually 5-15 degrees

7

What is cubitis valgus deformity?

Where the forearm is deviated away from the body more than normal

8

What is a common cause of cubitis valgus deformity?

Trauma

9

What is cubitis varus deformity?

Where the forearm deviates towards the midline of the body

10

What is the most common cause of cubitis varus deformity?

Malunion of a supracondylar humerus fracture from childhood

11

What positioning deformity may be observed from the side of the elbow?

Fixed flexion deformity

12

What is the usual cause of fixed flexion deformity?

Post-traumatic

13

What may be observed on the medial aspect of the elbow?

Olecranon bursitis

14

What may be the cause of firm lumps on the elbow?

Rheumatoid nodules) - indicate systemic rheumatoid disease

15

What other skin changes may be observed on the elbow posteriorly?

Psoaritic plaques

16

What do psoaritic plaques look like?

Well defined
Pink/red elevated lesion with silvery scale

17

What 2 things do we feel or on palpation?

Temperature
Key landmarks

18

What landmarks do we palpate in the elbow?

-The radial head/lateral epicondyle
-Medial epicondyle
Olecranon
-Biceps tendon

19

What should palpation of landmarks achieve?

Eliciting any localised tenderness

20

What will be the case with 1) biceps tendonitis, and 2) biceps tendon rupture?

1) It will be painul to supinate against resistance
2) Supination against resistance will be weak

21

How should movement be assessed?

First actively, then passively

22

What should be felt for when moving the joint?

Crepitus

23

Which 4 movements are tested in the elbow?

Flexion and extension o the elbow, and pronation and supination of the forearm.

24

What is the normal range of movement in elbow flexion?

0-145 degrees

25

What is the normal range of movement in elbow extension?

0 degrees

26

What is the normal range of movement in forearm pronation and supination?

0-90 degrees

27

What 2 special tests can be done on the elbow?

Medial epicondylitis test, and lateral epicondylitis test.

28

What is medial epicondylitis also called?

Golfer's elbow

29

What is lateral epicondylitis also called?

Tennis elbow

30

How is Golfer's elbow tested for?

Active wrist flexion against resistance. Stabilise the pts elbow and firmly palpate the medial epicondyle. Resist the flexion of the wrist with other hand.

31

How is Tennis elbow tested for?

Active wrist extension against resistance. Stabilise the pts elbow and firmly palpate the lateral epicondyle. Resist the extension of the wrist with other hand.

32

What is a positive sign in tennis and golfers elbow tests?

Pain elicited when this combination of actions is performed.

33

What further assessment may be done?

-Examine the joints above and below
-Full neuro exam of upper limb
-Imaging of joint if indicated