elbs brainscape unit three horticulture csv new Flashcards Preview

ELBS Unit B683 section 1 - Commercial horticulture > elbs brainscape unit three horticulture csv new > Flashcards

Flashcards in elbs brainscape unit three horticulture csv new Deck (70):
1

growth medium

Something you use to surround plants roots as they grow

2

thinning

pick out and discard any unwanted seedlings

3

Pricking out

When seedlings emerge they are transplanted carefully to space them out

4

Potting up

Taking a seedling from a tray and put it into an individual pot

5

Potting on

take a plant which has filled its current pot entirely and put it into the next size up

6

heated propagators

hot box - Advantages - can be done earlier in the year, can germinate seeds which are difficult at room temperature. Germination is faster

7

mist propagators

Electronic leaf turns on a mist spray when it gets dry then off again when it gets wet so it is always just moist

8

capillary matting

water wicks along the porous mat and keeps the plants watered

9

Annuals

grow flower and seed once per year e.g. tomatos

10

Biennials

grow flower and seed once every TWO years Examples :- Onions Carrots

11

Perennials

grow, flower and seed for many years.

12

Deciduous

trees shed their leaves

13

Evergreen

keep their leaves all winter

14

propagation

making copies of a plant

15

asexual reproduction

without flowers e.g. bulbs, corms, rhizomes, tubers and runners

16

advantages of asexual reproduction

Lots of new plants can be produced very quickly and cheaply
- All the new plants will be identical so the grower can be sure of their colour

17

disadvantages of asexual reproduction

no variation in the offspring so the plants will not be able to evolve by natural selection
- Any diseases in the parent plant will be easily spread to the next generation

18

tissue culture

cut parts of a plant into very small pieces under sterile conditions. These can be grown on agar gel to make new plants generically identical to the original one. Named example = disease resistant bananas

19

selective breeding

1.Decide which characteristics are important 2.Choose parents that show these characteristics 3.Select the best offspring from parents to breed the next generation 4. Repeat the process continuously for many generations

20

yield

how much crop you can harvest

21

disease resistance

how well they can survive when attacked by disease

22

hardiness

how tough they are

23

appearance

what they look like

24

hybrid vigour

cross breeds doing particularly well, growing and surviving better than either parent.

25

Genetic engineering

introduce genes from other organisms

26

GM problems

escape of GM crops into the wild, long term environmental impact of GM crops , long term effects on humans

27

ethical problems with GM

dependence on GM seed companies such as Monsanto for continued supplies, consumers may not be aware they are eating |GM crops , GM companies may be unscrupulous and take advantage of farmer

28

plants used in bedding schemes

Fuchsia, Pelargonium (geranium), Begonia, marigold, Lobelia

29

Features of plants used in bedding schemes,

Hardy, attractive, non-invasive, long flowering season

30

Aspect

which way the ground faces. South facing ground will get more sun, north facing ground will get less.

31

Shade

use shade tolerant plants such as ivy.

32

Drainage

If it is damp all the time use moisture loving plants such as ferns.

33

trees and shrubs

Cherry, Acer, Beech, Birch, Hydrangea, Buddleia, Forsythia, Viburnum

34

windbreaks

trees or shrubs planted to give shelter from the wind.

35

foliage

leaves

36

FYM

Farm Yard Manure

37

Mechanical weed control

hoeing, strimming, harrowing

38

Chemical weed control

involving herbicides ( weedkillers)

39

effects of pruning

Hormones released affect growth

40

auxins

plant hormones

41

Rotary lawnmowers

blades go around in a flat plane, parallel to the ground.

42

sidewheel/blade (cylinder) mowers

the blades go around at right angle to the ground.

43

Cylinder mowers

can cut stripes into the grass

44

setting the height of cutting

the one-third rule. While the grass is growing fast cut more often. In spring and autumn and during really hot weather, cut less frequently.

45

producing a lawn from seed

Grass seed is best sown from late summer to mid-autumn; there is less competition from weeds, and the soil is warm, and damp for germination.
Advantages over turf ? it is cheaper, there are lots of different mixes available and seed is better for trickier areas, such as slopes and corners.

46

glasshouses advantages and disadvantages

Good light transmission Fragile, heavy, dangerous when broken

47

polytunnel advantages and disadvantages

Light, cheap, not fragile Degrade in sunlight to go opaque

48

cloche advantages and disadvantages

Precise, cheap Labour setting them out and moving them

49

fleece ground cover advantages and disadvantages

Warms soil Labour, wind, ripping

50

siting a glasshouse

In direct light,
- not near public movements areas/playing fields,
-not under or near trees
- orientated long axis east/west so south facing.
- not in hollows or damp places
- not in very windy places

51

cold frames

unheated boxes with transparent tops. Plants can be put out into them from a greenhouse to get ready for life in the open. They can be opened during the day and closed during the night to toughen plants up

52

advantages and disadvantages of plastic

Cheaper, less fragile, lighter
less dangerous

Not long lasting, becomes less transparent, can be ripped

53

advantages and disadvantages of glass

Long lasting, transparency doesn?t change, can?t be ripped, More expensive, fragile, heavier, dangerous when broken

More expensive, fragile, heavier, dangerous when broken

54

economic factors involved when using a glasshouse

Usage all year round to grow crops out of season. This brings a higher price so you can make more money.
-temperature control can be automated so that vents open when it gets too hot and heaters come on when it gets too cold . This will maximise growth rate and therefore yield and income
-automation will reduce labour costs as you don?t have to pay staff

55

biological pest control

involves introducing or encouraging another species which will reduce the numbers of the pest species to a less harmful level e.g. by predation.

56

Advantages of biological control

Is very often species specific, doesn?t harm other organisms
- Does not build up in the environment

57

Disadvantages of biological control

It is slower acting, not all the pests are killed

58

Advantages of using pesticides

they are usually quick acting
-If applied correctly they will kill all the pest population

59

Disadvantages of using pesticides

They can kill non-target species
They can get into the environment and be harmful
They can bio-accumulate as they go up the food chain ( e.g. DDT in birds of prey)
They can be toxic to humans so protective equipment is needed
They can leave residues in food

60

Examples of biological control

parasitic wasps ( Encarsia Formosa) preying on greenhouse whitefly, ladybirds preying on aphids.

61

soil based compost

John Innes

62

peat based compost

cheap, not good for the environment ( non-renewable, habitat loss) dry out easily

63

soil-less compost

contains a mixture of organic materials such as bark and peat moss, maybe composted garden waste, and inorganic materials such as sand or vermiculite, but no field soil.

64

peat-free compost

e.g. coir ( coconut husk) ecologically sound, can be fibrous and difficult to wet

65

dangers associated with growing plants year after year in glasshouse soil

build up of pests and diseases, Cultivation to same depth ? pan formation, nutrients drawn from the soil and it becomes depleted

66

ethical considerations in the use of peat

Peat is a non-renewable fossil resource. It is cut from bog land in hilly regions of the UK and Ireland. The habitat in the bog land provides a home for many species which can?t live anywhere else. The cutting of peat for use as garden compost destroys this habitat.

67

Hydroponics

the growing of plants in water solutions

68

commercial advantages of hydroponics

precise control over nutrients and water results in high yield, little waste and good product quality.

69

ICT and hydroponics

Data-loggers can be used to monitor and control the pH, temperature, oxygen can nutrient contents of the hydroponic solutions. The data can be recorded for long term monitoring. Control of these parameters can be automated.

70

lime

add to soil to rise the pH ( make it more alkaline/less acidic)