Flashcards in elbs brainscape unit three horticulture csv new Deck (70):
Something you use to surround plants roots as they grow
pick out and discard any unwanted seedlings
When seedlings emerge they are transplanted carefully to space them out
Taking a seedling from a tray and put it into an individual pot
take a plant which has filled its current pot entirely and put it into the next size up
hot box - Advantages - can be done earlier in the year, can germinate seeds which are difficult at room temperature. Germination is faster
Electronic leaf turns on a mist spray when it gets dry then off again when it gets wet so it is always just moist
water wicks along the porous mat and keeps the plants watered
grow flower and seed once per year e.g. tomatos
grow flower and seed once every TWO years Examples :- Onions Carrots
grow, flower and seed for many years.
trees shed their leaves
keep their leaves all winter
making copies of a plant
without flowers e.g. bulbs, corms, rhizomes, tubers and runners
advantages of asexual reproduction
Lots of new plants can be produced very quickly and cheaply
- All the new plants will be identical so the grower can be sure of their colour
disadvantages of asexual reproduction
no variation in the offspring so the plants will not be able to evolve by natural selection
- Any diseases in the parent plant will be easily spread to the next generation
cut parts of a plant into very small pieces under sterile conditions. These can be grown on agar gel to make new plants generically identical to the original one. Named example = disease resistant bananas
1.Decide which characteristics are important 2.Choose parents that show these characteristics 3.Select the best offspring from parents to breed the next generation 4. Repeat the process continuously for many generations
how much crop you can harvest
how well they can survive when attacked by disease
how tough they are
what they look like
cross breeds doing particularly well, growing and surviving better than either parent.
introduce genes from other organisms
escape of GM crops into the wild, long term environmental impact of GM crops , long term effects on humans
ethical problems with GM
dependence on GM seed companies such as Monsanto for continued supplies, consumers may not be aware they are eating |GM crops , GM companies may be unscrupulous and take advantage of farmer
plants used in bedding schemes
Fuchsia, Pelargonium (geranium), Begonia, marigold, Lobelia
Features of plants used in bedding schemes,
Hardy, attractive, non-invasive, long flowering season
which way the ground faces. South facing ground will get more sun, north facing ground will get less.
use shade tolerant plants such as ivy.
If it is damp all the time use moisture loving plants such as ferns.
trees and shrubs
Cherry, Acer, Beech, Birch, Hydrangea, Buddleia, Forsythia, Viburnum
trees or shrubs planted to give shelter from the wind.
Farm Yard Manure
Mechanical weed control
hoeing, strimming, harrowing
Chemical weed control
involving herbicides ( weedkillers)
effects of pruning
Hormones released affect growth
blades go around in a flat plane, parallel to the ground.
sidewheel/blade (cylinder) mowers
the blades go around at right angle to the ground.
can cut stripes into the grass
setting the height of cutting
the one-third rule. While the grass is growing fast cut more often. In spring and autumn and during really hot weather, cut less frequently.
producing a lawn from seed
Grass seed is best sown from late summer to mid-autumn; there is less competition from weeds, and the soil is warm, and damp for germination.
Advantages over turf ? it is cheaper, there are lots of different mixes available and seed is better for trickier areas, such as slopes and corners.
glasshouses advantages and disadvantages
Good light transmission Fragile, heavy, dangerous when broken
polytunnel advantages and disadvantages
Light, cheap, not fragile Degrade in sunlight to go opaque
cloche advantages and disadvantages
Precise, cheap Labour setting them out and moving them
fleece ground cover advantages and disadvantages
Warms soil Labour, wind, ripping
siting a glasshouse
In direct light,
- not near public movements areas/playing fields,
-not under or near trees
- orientated long axis east/west so south facing.
- not in hollows or damp places
- not in very windy places
unheated boxes with transparent tops. Plants can be put out into them from a greenhouse to get ready for life in the open. They can be opened during the day and closed during the night to toughen plants up
advantages and disadvantages of plastic
Cheaper, less fragile, lighter
Not long lasting, becomes less transparent, can be ripped
advantages and disadvantages of glass
Long lasting, transparency doesn?t change, can?t be ripped, More expensive, fragile, heavier, dangerous when broken
More expensive, fragile, heavier, dangerous when broken
economic factors involved when using a glasshouse
Usage all year round to grow crops out of season. This brings a higher price so you can make more money.
-temperature control can be automated so that vents open when it gets too hot and heaters come on when it gets too cold . This will maximise growth rate and therefore yield and income
-automation will reduce labour costs as you don?t have to pay staff
biological pest control
involves introducing or encouraging another species which will reduce the numbers of the pest species to a less harmful level e.g. by predation.
Advantages of biological control
Is very often species specific, doesn?t harm other organisms
- Does not build up in the environment
Disadvantages of biological control
It is slower acting, not all the pests are killed
Advantages of using pesticides
they are usually quick acting
-If applied correctly they will kill all the pest population
Disadvantages of using pesticides
They can kill non-target species
They can get into the environment and be harmful
They can bio-accumulate as they go up the food chain ( e.g. DDT in birds of prey)
They can be toxic to humans so protective equipment is needed
They can leave residues in food
Examples of biological control
parasitic wasps ( Encarsia Formosa) preying on greenhouse whitefly, ladybirds preying on aphids.
soil based compost
peat based compost
cheap, not good for the environment ( non-renewable, habitat loss) dry out easily
contains a mixture of organic materials such as bark and peat moss, maybe composted garden waste, and inorganic materials such as sand or vermiculite, but no field soil.
e.g. coir ( coconut husk) ecologically sound, can be fibrous and difficult to wet
dangers associated with growing plants year after year in glasshouse soil
build up of pests and diseases, Cultivation to same depth ? pan formation, nutrients drawn from the soil and it becomes depleted
ethical considerations in the use of peat
Peat is a non-renewable fossil resource. It is cut from bog land in hilly regions of the UK and Ireland. The habitat in the bog land provides a home for many species which can?t live anywhere else. The cutting of peat for use as garden compost destroys this habitat.
the growing of plants in water solutions
commercial advantages of hydroponics
precise control over nutrients and water results in high yield, little waste and good product quality.
ICT and hydroponics
Data-loggers can be used to monitor and control the pH, temperature, oxygen can nutrient contents of the hydroponic solutions. The data can be recorded for long term monitoring. Control of these parameters can be automated.