Flashcards in elbs brainscape unit three livestock husbandry part one Deck (50):
Taking care of animals
will kill bacteria and prevent disease spread.
routine use of antibiotics will lead to a build-up of resistant bacteria which will eventually make the problems worse. Antibiotics can get into the food chain and resistant bacteria may attack humans.
signs of a healthy animal
With the rest Active and alert Normal eating, Normal faeces, Normal behaviour patterns, Good coat condition
signs of an unhealthy animal
On its own, Not active or alert, Not eating normally, Abnormal faeces, Odd behaviour patterns,Dull or shabby coat condition, Matter from eyes or
loss of condition
foot and mouth, Schmallenberg
blowfly maggots, lice, ticks, fleas
risks associated with inadequate housing
Poor ventilation and damp can lead to pneumonia and death
advantages of intensive systems
More profit per animal, Less labour , cheaper product
disadvantages of intensive systems
Costly to set up, Disease can spread fast, Not good for animal welfare
advantages of extensive systems
Cheaper to set up, Disease can’t spread as fast, Better for animal welfare
disadvantages of extensive systems
Less profit per animal, More labour, More expensive product
e.g. food and fertiliser prices
e.g. the current market price for wheat, lamb etc.
low energy, takes up space, cheap, eat lots of e.g. grass, hay, silage
– high energy, compact, expensive, eat little e.g. pellets, grain
starch and sugars – for energy
for growth and repair
long term energy store plus insulation
keeps bowels clean and working properly. Too little = constipation
essential to have ad lib clean water at all times
Vitamins (A, C and D)
essential for correct metabolic function. Too little = deficiency diseases
Minerals (Ca = calcium for bones. Too little = weak growth and weak muscles Fe = iron for blood. Too little = anaemia, lack of energy
Excesses of fats and carbohydrates
over fat animal
food just to keep going
e.g. The more milk a cow givens, the more food she needs
Food conversion ratio
how effectively an animal turns its food into its own flesh. e.g. if we feed a pig 3kg food and it puts on 1 kg weight, it has a food conversion ratio of 3:1. The smaller the food conversion ratio the better i.e. 5:1 is worse than 3:1 because you have to feed it more to grow the same amount.
Big insoluble molecules à small soluble molecules
adds digestive enzymes
absorption of digested food
reabsorption of water and salts
Extra features Rumen – bag full of bacteria and microbes to help break down cellulose, Animal regurgitates and re-chews food (Chewing the cud)
ruminant source of protein
They get their protein largely from digesting the bacteria and other unicellular organisms that live in their rumen and break down the cellulose in the grass they eat.
oviduct (fallopian tube)
connects ovary to uterus
offspring develop here. Often split into two horns in animals.
penis goes in here, offspring come out
sack containing the testicles
sperm are made here
connect testis to penis
carries either urine or semen. Goes into the vagina
outside parts of female sexual system.
control the timing of oestrus and reproduction in mammals and the factors that influence hormone production. The oestrus cycle is controlled by the level of oestrogen, FSH and LH.
These fluctuate during the year e.g. sheep don’t come onto heat until the days are getting shorted in October/November so that they give birth in the spring. Ovulation can be stimulated by artificially Light levels control this. Age has an effect – females will not start ovulating until they are sexually mature and will eventually stop ovulating when they get old.