elbs brainscape unit three livestock husbandry part one Flashcards Preview

ELBS Unit B683 section 1 - Commercial horticulture > elbs brainscape unit three livestock husbandry part one > Flashcards

Flashcards in elbs brainscape unit three livestock husbandry part one Deck (50):
1

husbandry

Taking care of animals

2

Antibiotics

will kill bacteria and prevent disease spread.

3

antibiotic problems

routine use of antibiotics will lead to a build-up of resistant bacteria which will eventually make the problems worse. Antibiotics can get into the food chain and resistant bacteria may attack humans.

4

signs of a healthy animal

With the rest Active and alert Normal eating, Normal faeces, Normal behaviour patterns, Good coat condition

5

signs of an unhealthy animal

On its own, Not active or alert, Not eating normally, Abnormal faeces, Odd behaviour patterns,Dull or shabby coat condition, Matter from eyes or

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loss of condition

looking poorly

7

Bacterial diseases

e.coli, salmonella,TB.

8

Viruses

foot and mouth, Schmallenberg

9

Fungi

ringworm

10

Parasites

blowfly maggots, lice, ticks, fleas

11

risks associated with inadequate housing

Poor ventilation and damp can lead to pneumonia and death

12

advantages of intensive systems

More profit per animal, Less labour , cheaper product

13

disadvantages of intensive systems

Costly to set up, Disease can spread fast, Not good for animal welfare

14

advantages of extensive systems

Cheaper to set up, Disease can’t spread as fast, Better for animal welfare

15

disadvantages of extensive systems

Less profit per animal, More labour, More expensive product

16

inputs

e.g. food and fertiliser prices

17

outputs

e.g. the current market price for wheat, lamb etc.

18

Bulk foods

low energy, takes up space, cheap, eat lots of e.g. grass, hay, silage

19

Concentrates

– high energy, compact, expensive, eat little e.g. pellets, grain

20

Carbohydrates

starch and sugars – for energy

21

Proteins

for growth and repair

22

Fats

long term energy store plus insulation

23

Fibre

keeps bowels clean and working properly. Too little = constipation

24

Water

essential to have ad lib clean water at all times

25

Vitamins (A, C and D)

essential for correct metabolic function. Too little = deficiency diseases

26

Minerals

Minerals (Ca = calcium for bones. Too little = weak growth and weak muscles Fe = iron for blood. Too little = anaemia, lack of energy

27

Excesses of fats and carbohydrates

over fat animal

28

maintenance ration.

food just to keep going

29

production ration

e.g. The more milk a cow givens, the more food she needs

30

Food conversion ratio

how effectively an animal turns its food into its own flesh. e.g. if we feed a pig 3kg food and it puts on 1 kg weight, it has a food conversion ratio of 3:1. The smaller the food conversion ratio the better i.e. 5:1 is worse than 3:1 because you have to feed it more to grow the same amount.

31

Digestion

Big insoluble molecules à small soluble molecules

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Stomach

contains acid

33

Gall bladder

adds bile

34

Pancreas

adds digestive enzymes

35

Small intestine

absorption of digested food

36

Large intestine

reabsorption of water and salts

37

ruminant

Extra features Rumen – bag full of bacteria and microbes to help break down cellulose, Animal regurgitates and re-chews food (Chewing the cud)

38

ruminant source of protein

They get their protein largely from digesting the bacteria and other unicellular organisms that live in their rumen and break down the cellulose in the grass they eat.

39

ovary

makes eggs

40

oviduct (fallopian tube)

connects ovary to uterus

41

uterus (womb)

offspring develop here. Often split into two horns in animals.

42

vagina

penis goes in here, offspring come out

43

Scrotum

sack containing the testicles

44

testes

sperm are made here

45

sperm ducts

connect testis to penis

46

penis

carries either urine or semen. Goes into the vagina

47

Vulva

outside parts of female sexual system.

48

hormones

control the timing of oestrus and reproduction in mammals and the factors that influence hormone production. The oestrus cycle is controlled by the level of oestrogen, FSH and LH.

49

female hormones

These fluctuate during the year e.g. sheep don’t come onto heat until the days are getting shorted in October/November so that they give birth in the spring. Ovulation can be stimulated by artificially Light levels control this. Age has an effect – females will not start ovulating until they are sexually mature and will eventually stop ovulating when they get old.

50

testosterone

The male sex hormone is testosterone. Again the level of this hormone varies during the year. Presence of females that are on heat will boost testosterone production.