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Flashcards in Electrolytes Deck (25):
1

Types of hypotonic hyponatremia

hypovolemic-diarrhea/vomiting/Addisons
euvolemic-SIADH, psychogenic polydipsia
hypervolemic-CHF, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome

2

Cause isotonic hyponatremia

elevated protein or lipids in serum
pseudohyponatremia

3

Cause of hypertonic hyponatremia

Glc or mannitol

4

Tx for hypotonic hyponatremia

hypovolemic and euvolemic=IV NS
hypervolemic=diuretics

5

Tx for isotonic and hypertonic hyponatremia

correct underlying problem

6

Cause and tx of isovolemic hypernatremic

diabetes insipidus
tx=vasopression and oral fluids

7

Cause and tx of hypervolemic hypernatremia

hyperaldosteronism/Cushing's
tx=diuretics +D5W

8

Cause and tx of hypovolemic hypernatremia

osmotic diuresis/diarrhea
tx=isotonic NS

9

Relationship b/t Ca2+ and alkalosis

increases Ca2+ binding
decreases free Ca2+
causes hypocalcemia

10

Causes of hypocalcemia (5)

hypoparathyroidism
Vit D deficiency
renal failure
acute pancreatitis
hypomagnesemia

11

Sx of hypocalcemia

prolonged QT
tetany
basal ganglia calcifications

12

Tx for hypocalcemia

IV Ca2+ gluconate
Vit D

13

Causes of hypercalcemia (7)

hyperparathyroidism
malignancy (PTHrP and mets to bone)
Paget's of bone
excess Vit D
sarcoidosis
multiple myeloma
familial hypocalciuric hypocalcemia

14

Sx of hypercalcemia (5)

shorted QT
nephrolithiasis
abd pain/muscle weakness
psych changes
osteitis fibrosa cystica

15

Tx for hypercalcemia

IV NS most important
furosemide
bisphosphonates (pamindrone)
calcitonin
phosphate last resort (can cause metatstatic calcifications)

16

Causes of hypokalemia

hyperaldosteronism
insulin/epinephrine
diuretics
diarrhea

17

Sx of hypokalemia

flattened T waves
decreased DTR's
paralytic ileus

18

Tx for hypokalemia

oral KCl
10mEq increases by 0.1mEq/L
IV KCl burns, only used emergently
correct hypomagnesemia

19

Causes of hyperkalemia (6)

renal failure
ACEI
Addison's
acidosis
rhabdomyolysis
beta blockers

20

Sx of hyperkalemia

peaked T waves
wide QRS
arrhythmia

21

Tx for hyperkalemia

IV Ca2+ if arrhthymia
insulin + Glc
kayexalate
diuretics

22

Causes of hyperphosphatemia (5)

renal insufficiency
bisphosphonates
Vit D excess
hypoparathyroid
rhabdomyolysis

23

Tx for hyperphosphatemia

Al(OH)3
bicarb

24

Causes of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (4)

Renal tubular acidosis
acetazolamide
diarrhea
fistulas

25

Causes of metabolic alkalosis (4)

vomiting
ECF volume contraction
villous adenoma
hyperaldosteronism