What is electron transport?
process of coenzyme reoxidation under aerobic conditions, involving stepwise transfer of electrons to oxygen by means of a series of electron carriers
What is the electron transport system?
electron transfer is accomplished as a multistep process that involves and ordered series of reversibly oxidizable electron carriers function together
How many kinds of electron carriers does the ETC consist of?
What are the five kinds of ETC carriers?
transfer both electrons and protons
use either FAD or FMN as the prosthetic group
Describe Iron-Sulfur Proteins.
family of proteins, each with an Fe-S center that consists of iron and sulfur atoms complexed with cysteine groups of the protein
electron carriers in the Fe
(only one electron and no protons)
contain iron but as part of porphyrin prosthetic group called HEME
5 types of cytochromes (b, c, c1, a and a3)
one electron carrier and no protons
only cytochrome c is a peripheral membrane protien that is loosely associated with the outer surface of the membrane
Describe Copper-Containing Cytochromes.
cytochromes a and a3 contian a single copper atom bound to the heme group of the cytochrome
this forms a bimetallic iron-copper center
iron-copper center keeps O2 molecules bound to cytochrome oxidase complex until it has picked up four electrons and four protons, two water molecules are released
Describe Coenzyme Q.
the only non-protein component of the ETS
also known as ubiquinone
freely mobile in the inner membrane, it serves as a collection point for electrons from reduced FMN and FAD-linked dehydrogenases
CoQ reduced in two successive steps ( 1e- & 1H+) to CoQH and then CoQH2
releases and accepts both protons and electrons
Define standard reduction potential.
a measure in volts of the affinity a compound has for electrons
how easily a compound has for electrons and become reduced
How are the electron carriers order based on their energy levels?
the position of each carrier is determined by its standard reduction potential
What are respiratory complexes?
subset of carriers of the electron transport system consisting of a distinctive assembly of polypeptides and protsthetic groups, organized together to play a specific role in the electron transport process
How many complexes are involved in the ETC?
Describe what occurs in complex 1.
transfer electrons from NADH to CoQ - NADH-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase
Describe what occurs in complex 2.
transfers to CoQ the electrons derived from succinate (TCA-6)
succinate-coenzyme Q oxidoreductase complex
Describe what occurs in complex 3.
coenzyme Q-cytochrome c oxidoreductase complex
accepts electrons from CoQ and passes them to cytochrome c
Describe what occurs in complex 4.
transfer electrons from cytochrome c to oxygen and is called cytochrome c oxidase
How many protons are yielded from the 4 complexes?