Flashcards in Elzbthn Mannerism & Elzbthn/Jcbn Drama Deck (75):
Improvements in education during the Elizabethan age gave a grounding in classical rhetoric. What three latin terms categorize the methods of argument creation?
Inventio: how to find matter
Dispositio: how to divide and organize it
Elocutio: How to put words together stylistically for clarity or persuasion.
Fowler says Elizabethan rhetoric was not Renaissance, but already ________ (explain)
Mannerist; mannerist rhetoric is always stylish and self-conscious, showing relish for ornate or cleverly arranged words.
The surface of the Elizabethan mode of mannerism depended on ______ rather than ______, though the latter are by no means lacking.
Schemes (patterns of arrangement); tropes (metaphorical figures of speech)
What is a scheme? and how does it operate in Elizabethan mannerism?
A pattern of arrangement; it is more important to the mannerist style of the moment than tropes (which still appear often). Parallel arrangements, etc.
In Elizabethan mannerism, what is a trope?
A metaphorical figure of speech--not as important to the poetry of the time as the scheme, but still important.
What is amplification? and what is the role of amplification in Elizabethan rhetoric? An example?
Exaggerated emphasis for persuasive effect; abundant in the writing of the time--the best example among prose works being Sidney's Arcadia. A heroine didn't take off her clothes to go to bed, she "impoverished [her] clothes to enrich [her] bed..."
In Elizabethan romances generally, the story was relatively unimportant, existing mainly to evoke the world of romance or to provide ______________...
passionately charged occasions for rhetorical expression.
Sidney's Arcadia, though unfinished and imperfect, has remained a generally admired masterpiece for centuries. What unlikely group, given to censoring other works, accepted Arcadia?
The Pilgrim "Fathers" in America
Individual sonnets appeared in English as early as ____
Individual sonnets appeared in English as early as Wyatt, but the first sonnet sequence was _____________ (1580), by Thomas Watson. How had Watson begun this sequence?
The Hecatompathia or passionate Centurie of Love; by translating Petrarch into Latin
The first sonnet sequence in English was The Hecatompathia or passionate Centurie of Love. Who wrote this, and in what year?
Thomas Watson; 1580
Watson's sonnet sequence is outdone fairly soon after it is written--by whom, and by which work? Around when is this work produced?
Sidney; Astrophil and Stella (1591; wr.?1582)
What is the relationship between Sidney's Astrophil and Stella and Petrarch?
Complicated. Sidney ostensibly overturns Petrarchist conventions (like the helpless, submissive lover), but there are still Petrarchan conventions.
In Shakespeare's Sonnets (1609) the impression of _________ __________ is so strong that many post-Romantic readers have understandably been unable to see anything but immediate expressions of love experiences.
Describe pastoral eclogue
In Elizabethan poetry, a medium length form consisting of a dialogue between shepherds (supposed to be simpler than the poet), often with an inset narrative or song.
What does pastoral eclogue exclude, and why?
excludes exact knowledge, representation of the passage of time, of work, of difference of rank and external details--all in the interest of concentration on essentials: to realize an unhistorical, changeless world.
In a tradition of pastoral eclogue going back through Baptista Spagnuoli Mantuanus to Petrarch, this form may conceal ecclesiastical and political allegories, based ultimately on ________________...
The serious pun in "pastor"
In Walter Ralegh's rebuttal of Marlowe's "Passionate Shepherd," he insists on ______: "Time drives the flocks from field to fold . . . The flowers do fade . . ." etc.
Why is this significant?
Change; pastoral eclogue purportedly tried to realize an unhistorical, changeless world
Elizabethan hunting poems; praise of country life; instruction and work; seasonal and geographical variety and historical change. All of these appear in _______
Spenser's The Shepheardes Calendar (1579) mixes what two (usually opposite) modes?
Pastoral and georgic
In Elizabethan times, the word "artificial" had ________
Positive connotations, not negative
What Greek writer, popular in Elizabethan imitation, had a tonality of erotic warmth intermittently cooled by "artificial" (then a good word) digressions and allusions?
What are epyllia?
Longish mythological narratives
The neogothic vogue for Ovid resulted in Elizabethans writing epyllia, or longish mythological narratives. Name three stand-out examples.
Shakespeare's Venus and Adonis (1593); Marlowe's unfinished Hero and Leander (1598; wr. before 1593); the continuation of the latter by George Chapman (1598)
Modern critics (says Fowler) insist on the Faerie Queene's undramatic quality. Fowler ultimately disagrees, but admits that this is obviously right insofar as...
It seldom offers a direct naturalistic representation of objective reality as it would appear to an observer.
If Spenser's poetry is subjective and therefore undramatic in the usual sense, what is Fowler's argument for drama in Spenser?
The reader is put through the experience not as a spectator but as a participant. When Phedon tells his appalling case history and Guyon briskly advises him "all your hurts may soone through temperance be easd," a good reader will sense that the response is facile, and be ready for irony. The indolent reader will see the speech as authorial rather than dramatic, and be dismayed when Guyon later suffers an unforeseen stumble.
In Fowler's analysis of dramatic writing in the Faerie Queene, the reader becomes a participant, and apparently authorial statements or actions can be seen instead as dramatic, introducing irony. What is the relationship of such subtly ironic narrative to Elizabethan fiction? What is its heritage?
It's very new at the time. Later, writers like Fielding and other early novelists will take it as their point of departure from Spenser.
The earliest and greatest advances in the rise of realism take place not in the novel, which matures later, but in
Short, gradual steps: here an unusual realization of psychology, there a few specific details of a Vice's villainy. What is happening?
The rise of realism in Elizabethan and Jacobean drama.
The Morality play continues throughout the
In the 16th century, if not before, the Morality play was accompanied by another popular dramatic form, __________
The _________ has given scholars trouble since it was applied to works of such diversity: in Scotland to farces, in England to moral allegory but also political allegory and coarse comedy.
Probably _______--contrasted with outdoor _______--meant simply indoor plays.
Interludes were typically written for a small professional company (often four men and a boy) of resident or loaned or itinerant players. Such a troupe could not have performed open-air _________ with their large casts. Indeed, the interlude troupe required a special, more technical approach on the dramatist's part, to provide for _________ __ _____.
Moralities; doubling of parts
Since indoor interludes used small casts, parts were often doubled. This resulted in characters oddly vanishing halfway through the play. However, by Shakespeare's time, at least, this dwindling of parts seems not to have been felt as a defect. What does this explain about an important Shakespeare work?
The lack of sustained presence and development of Cordelia and the fool in King Lear
Though different from the Moralities, interludes still seem remote to us; they sermonize, and they ignore causal sequences when the argument requires it. But the simplicity can be deceptive: they were often subtle. Give an example of how this might be seen.
The audience has to think abstractly about personifications before the meanings of the interlude could be disclosed. In Respublica (1554) there is a system of double personifications, whereby the vices disguise themselves as personified virtues: Avarice as Policy, Insolence as Authority, Oppression as Reformation, etc.
Describe the difficulties modern critics long had in dealing with character analysis in Marlowe's plays, such as Tamberlaine Part I.
Tudor interludes and Moralities have almost no individual characterization, and no psychology at all in the naturalistic sense; characters are predictable in terms of moral philosophy rather than natural motivations. So the question becomes how far Marlowe uses Morality structures actively, and how far passively.
In Faustus, naturalistic characterization is largely absent, but occurs most in which scenes?
Opening and closing (why? Idk)
Why is Faustus hardly a representative "man of the Renaissance"?
Marlowe shows him despising the modern Ramus and the ancient Aristotle indifferently. Faustus's summary of the arts is really non-naturalistic--a medieval way of representing experience lasting over a long period of time.
Dr. Faustus is a modified form of
The Morality play survives for a long time, even through Marlowe's career. It must have received powerful reinforcement from habits of self-examination cultivated by ______________...
the religious of the time, through works of casuistry and the procedures of the confessional.
But move on from Morality-based plays to Shakespeare's King John or Richard III and you are at once struck by the increase in ________ detail. Of course, in the interval, a beginning has been made on the genre of _______, in such works as More's History of King Richard the Third, etc.
Even though Shakespeare's early work already shows an increase in 'unnecessary' detail, it is not until ________ (1597) that fully detailed action is arrived at. Discuss briefly.
1 Henry IV; Morality features still persist: schematic contrasts of Hal and Hotspur belong to an allegory of true and false honor, and Falstaff easily represents the Vice of concupiscence. But the sheer quantity of realistic detail and subtlety of characterization is of an entirely new order.
Gascoigne's Supposes is a ________ __ ________, which is to say that character, in it, is subordinated to complication of plot. (Akin to Italian Commedia dell' arte)
Comedy of Intrigue
The comedy of intrigue (such as Gascoigne's Supposes) is closely akin to the Italian Commedia dell' arte. What is this latter tradition?
A largely oral tradition of improvised comedy with predetermined, permanent characters.
The comedy of intrigue would form a considerable element in most subsequent drama, by no means all of it comic. Our greatest master of plotting, __________, achieves some sort of ultimate in ___________ (1610), which in some unencompassable fashion keeps several handfuls of con game intrigues going simultaneously.
Another inexhaustibly rich source of creative complication in Elizabethan drama was the _________, which used a previous literary work as subject, or point of departure, or text for comment. The new work now involved two elements instead of one: the original and the response. An example from Shakespare is ________....
Burlesque (travesty); A Midsummer Night's Dream (?1596), which burlesques a kind of tragedy
What is a burlesque or travesty?
In drama, a form which used a previous literary work as subject, or point of departure, or text for comment. The new work now involved two elements instead of one: the original and the response. An example from Shakespare is A Midsummer Night's Dream
Peele's burlesque, Old Wives' Tale (1595) delicately brought together all that was typically romantic. Give four romantic elements burlesqued.
Fairy magic, enchantments, talking statuary, famous heroes.
What play by Marlowe is a graceful burlesque or travesty of Virgil?
Burlesques were not imitative or secondary in any bad sense; in fact they raised literature to a higher power by
opening new possibilities of concision and complexity.
Elizabethan/Jacobean drama often interacts with previous sources to great effect, reinterpreting events in a romance, for instance, with a complicating effect. Since the best minds of the time were sharpened on allegorical interpretation, Shakespeare could
bring intellect effectively to bear on the familiar action. His use of obvious sources achieved a concentration of meaning, allowing him to communicate fine moral shades, or cultivate a many-faceted complexity of alternative views, bringing profundity into secular drama.
Realism didn't begin with Marlowe; local touches of it appear almost from origins of drama. But more the development of drama as an apparently free-standing, self-contained imitation of life does not occur until what watershed period?
What happens to realism in the 1590's?
Realism didn't begin at this time but the development of drama as an apparently free-standing, self-contained imitation of life flowers here--see Marlowe's Massacre at Paris (?1593) and Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors (1593)
What does the flowering of realism mean for Hamlet's shelf life?
We seem better able to respond to it, to continue to interpret its events. Distortions of time cause misinterpretation, but the misinterpretation would not be possible if the play did not seem within reach much later.
Even in the 1590's, non-naturalistic representation was still very well understood; the otherwise consistent naturalism of a play might suddenly switch off without, perhaps, bothering contemporary audiences. Name an example of this from King Lear.
When Edgar convinces Gloucester that he has thrown himself off a cliff. We seem more accepting of the footprint in Robinson Crusoe, perhaps because of its placement at the direct center of the novel.
Popular theatres like the Globe and the Swan had evolved out of inns and bearpits, retaining polygonal form, raised seating, etc. This precluded a lot of naturalistic scenery, but special effects were still used, such as
Flames, traps, cisterns of water, etc. Sometimes costumes and props (lots of money spent on these) were elaborate enough to attract admiration of European visitors.
Medieval tragedies seem to have been different from early modern tragedies in what way?
They were stories of divine judgments upon the guilty--like those that make up Chaucer's Monk's Tale. The subject was the downfall of the fortunate or powerful; their theme, God's underlying justice. Different from later tragedy, in which a hero's fault or error leads to disproportionate and unjust-seeming suffering.
What is a marked change in early modern tragedy from its medieval forbears?
In the later tragedy, a hero's fault or error leads to suffering greater than itself by a terrible disproportion, and far from just in the ordinary sense. Medieval tragedy focused on God's just punishment of the wicked.
To most Elizabethans/Jacobeans, classical tragedy meant
Seneca was translated into English, acted on the academic stage, and imitated in English plays from _______ (1562) and ____________ (1592) onwards.
Gorboduc; the Spanish Tragedy
Describe Senecan tragedy
A form of closet drama with little action and crude psychology; presents extreme passions and sensational events, often in narrative or lyric form. Its staple is long declamatory speeches, full of patterned rhetoric: most events are opportunities for rhetoric.
What about Seneca-influenced tragedy like Richard III or The Jew of Malta might have appealed to contemporaries so much?
To some extent we may catch Richard's infectious glee at the brilliance of his twisted wooing of Anne, offering us a kind of moral holiday. But there may also be a wish to face the ugliness of political motivation for what it is, as opposed to more idealistic depictions of God's infallible justice.
Imitations of Seneca developed into a characteristically Jacobean form, _______________
Revenge tragedy is a theatrical landmark, with many of its earliest manifestations still commonly appearing on syllabi. Name six examples, three of them from Shakespeare.
The Spanish Tragedy, The Duchess of Malfi, The White Devil are revenge tragedies. Titus Andronicus and Hamlet also fit the mold well. Macbeth is an inverted example.
Not all revenge tragedies made their political implications as clear as Chapman's The Revenge of Bussy d'Ambois (1610). What is one way a revenge tragedy might soften or disguise its critique of local corruption?
By setting the play somewhere seemingly exotic, often in Italy, allowing the punishments to seem more just. (Something Byron must be playing with in DJ)
At its most basic, what does medieval comedy look like?
A story beginning in perplexity and ending in blessedness, and showing the pattern of divine providence (i.e. the Divine Comedy).
What is the relationship between Elzbthn/Jacobean tragedy and medieval comedy? Provide one example from Shakespeare
The divine agency in medieval comedy often seems to flow beneath the later tragedies, with the terrifying suggestion of a malign cosmic fate. Thus Lear (ptd 1608) terrifyingly rewrites the happy closure of the original story, negating verities at the precise moment the older story upheld them.
How would Cordelia have fared in a medieval (divine) comedy?
She embodies everything that would have triumphed.
What role does Lear's fool, and the grotesque farcicality of some of bling Gloucester's actions, add to the tragedy?
A heightened sense of horror and dread, among other things. It sharpens the reminiscences to the (divine) comedic theme is ultimately denies.
Name a way that the Moralities continued to influence the relationship between Jacobean plots and subplots.
As in the earlier drama, these relationships didn't need to be causal--they were thematically related, by way of analogy, contrast, parody, or simply a scheme of shared coverage.
How is Elizabethan and Jacobean drama mannerist?
Dramatists of all the companies, both adult and children's, draw frequent attention to dramatic style. Sometimes explicitly as in Jonson or Shakespeare (cf. Hamlet's instructions to the players), other times implicitly through parody or direct variation of previous styles. (Concurrent with the rise of realism? Figuring out fiction?)
Around what time does the satirical genre of city comedy start to replace the romantic comedy of Shakespeare's middle period?
1598; Jonson (just say end of the century)
The manneristic taste for self reference found special satisfaction in city comedy--why?
From its beginnings in Jonson's comical satire (1597ish), it is full of dramatic theory and theatrical gossip. (E.g. throwing missiles in the wars of the theatres)